Nutritional Needs and Special Diets: A Comprehensive Guide

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Nutritional Needs

D(calciferol); it helps the calcification of our bones, it is present in milk and dairy products, fish liver oil. C(ascorbic acid), antioxidant and it keeps mucus normal and healthy, it is present in citrus fruits, strawberries, and vegetables.


The most important structural nutrients are proteins, although certain lipids, cell membranes, and certain salts such as the ones that form our skeleton.

Energy Needs

Our body needs energy to perform any physical activity. Energy nutrients (carbohydrates and fats) can be obtained from proteins, this process is possible due to cell respiration.

Different Caloric Values

One gram of fat 9 kcal, one gram of carbohydrates 3.75 kcal, one gram of protein 4 kcal.

Basal Metabolic Rate and Energy Use

When we are resting and completely still, our body needs a precise quantity of minimum energy known as basal metabolic rate to perform vital functions like breathing and pumping blood.


The quantity of food that someone consumes daily is called their food diet. This proportion varies according to the individual's age, sex, level of physical activity, and their physiological state:

  • Eat a variety of different foods: it is advisable to eat between 10% and 15% from protein sources, animal and vegetable, 55% and 66% for carbohydrates, and 30% of fats.
  • Have several meals each day.
  • Eat fresh vegetables.
  • Avoid convenience foods.
  • Include unsaturated fats.
  • Eat fiber-rich foods daily.

A Mediterranean diet incorporates the traditional healthy eating habits found in southern Europe. It is based on the consumption of olive oil, grains, pulses, fish, vegetables, and fruits. It can protect us against circulatory diseases caused by an excess of cholesterol, and can also help to prevent constipation, colon cancer, and obesity.

Special Diets

  • Low-calorie diets: a lower percentage of high-energy foods (carbohydrates and fats) for people who need to lose weight.
  • High-calorie diets: large number of high-energy foods for people who need to put on weight.
  • Low-cholesterol diets: for people suffering from circulatory disease, the amount of eggs, seafood, meat, and animal fats is reduced, and the consumption of oily fish and vegetable oil is increased.
  • High-fiber diets: rich in fiber, appropriate for people who suffer from chronic constipation.
  • Low-proteins diets: for people who suffer from kidney problems that lead to an excess of uric acid in the blood.
  • Soft diets: for people who suffer from gastrointestinal illnesses, rice, chicken, and fish.

Food allergies and food intolerances can occur with similar symptoms. Food intolerances can make a person feel bad. But food allergies can not only make someone feel bad but can cause risky reactions.

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