Neoclassicism and Urban Reform in Europe

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Return to the rules of Classical Antiquity (Greece and Rome).

The discovery of Pompeii and Herculaneum helps to make Antiquity fashionable.

It is a severe style, containment in forms (wants to get away from the Baroque and Rococo).

Jacques-Louis David: he was a great neoclassicism painter. He paints historical themes but linking with the political reality of the moment. He’s the painter of the French State and of Napoleon

The Arcs of Triumph of Napoleon: 3

After winning the battle of Austerlitz, he promised his soldiers that they would enter Paris under a triumphal arch as in the Roman Empire1806-36: works of the Arc de Triomphe • Incorporates decoration on the military victories of France • 1807-09: works of the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel • It is a scaled-down copy of the Arch of Constantine of Rome (4th century).

Haussmann Reform:

In the mid-nineteenth century, Paris wants to copy urban reform of London (destroyed in a fire, 1666).

Objective was to change the medieval city for a modern one: wider streets: Boulevards.

Square is created: Arch of Triumph distributes 12 boulevards.

This new urbanism will influence all of Europe in the 19th century.

Bath: A Neoclassical Town

City near Bristol. Famous for thermal tourism. The baths already existed in Roman times.

18th century was the spa destination preferred by the aristocracy.

Neoclassical architectural reforms to link with the Roman past.

In 18th c. Bath reinvented as a fashionable health resort.

Medieval town was transformed into a “classical” city.

John Wood (architect) wanted to transform Bath in a Roman city on English soil.

Not all the project became a reality, but neoclassical architecture transforms the city.

This urbanism influence in the UK and beyond.

Bath is a World Heritage Site since 1987.

Jane Austen (1775-1817):

One of the greatest novelists of all time.

Some of her most famous books: “Emma”, “Pride & Prejudice” and “Sense & Sensibility”.

1801-1805 she lived in Bath. Bath inspired some of her works: “Northanger Abbey” and “Persuasion”.

Literature as a Cultural Heritage and as a Tourist Product:

Literature is also cultural heritage. Literary tourism products can be created (it is a specialty of cultural tourism).

These tourist products can be based on different aspects: authors, book scenarios, fictional characters ...

In Bath: focus on Jane Austen and main characters Catherine Morland (“Northanger Abbey”) and Anne Elliott (“Persuasion”).

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