The modern subject is the subject of the sciences.

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It dawned on me: I realized

I’ve lost count of: I can’t remember       Innovation: new idea    Incubation: development

Hunch: an idea based on feelings     Adjacent: next to    Without exception: In every case

In solitude: alone

I can’t come up with        I haven’t the faintest idea

I’m drawing a blank          It’s dawning on me

It occurs to me that          I’m coming to the realization that

I’m stuck for ideas             It strikes me that

Much to dismay of: causing quite a lot of upset for     Chuck: throw     Congregate: gather together

Become: self-perpetuating: makes itself worse     Stay put: remain in one

Got to the bottom of       Overcome obstacles

Solve the dilemma            Solve the riddle

Sort out the mess              Crack the problem


I wish and if only

-Past simple, unlikely to happen: if only/I wish my job was closer to home.

-Past perfect simple, regrets: if only/I wish I hadn’t turned down the job offer in Madrid.

-Wish + would: dissatisfaction or annoyance desire for a change, is never used if both 

clauses have the same subject: I wish you’d remember to recharge my Ipad after you’ve borrowed it. I wish I would have a bigger house. I wish I had a bigger house. 

Suppose, supposing and what if 

-Questions about consequences of hypothetical or possible situations or to make suggestions: Suppose the business didn’t make any money- what would we do?

-Present tense, something is more likely to happen: What if we run out cash part way through the trip?

Would rather or would sooner 

-That + subject + past, express preference: I’d rather you didn’t text during the meeting.

-That + infinitive without to, no change in subject: I’d rather not talk to you right now. 

It’s (high) time

-It’s high time + subject + past, actions need to be taken soon: It’s high time I found a job where I can use my degree.




-Were + subject + statement, second conditional currently untrue statement: were I in a position to do so, I’d offer you a job today.  

-Were + subject + to, possible in the future: were the company to relocate to Hong Kong, we’d pay for our employees’ moving expenses.

-Were it not for (the fact that), how a person or event has changed a situation: were it not for the fact that I have student loans to repay, I would work less. 


-Had + past is used to, third and mix conditional, situation past led to a specific outcome: had I arranged for some interview coaching, I might have got the job. 

-Had it not been for (the fact that), an event or action of a person in the past has changed a situation: had it not been for the fact that I bumped into Lee, I wouldn’t have heard about it.


-Should you need any career advice, don’t hesitate to talk with one of our counsellors.

am Morgens bin ich um halb sieben aufgestanden. Ich habe um fünf vor sieben gefrühstückt, und bin ins Gymnasium gegangen. Am Nachmittag habe ich einen Apfel gegessen, und bin zurúck zum Gymnasium gegangen. Um fünf nach halb vier habe ich zu Mittag gegessen, eine Stunde danach habe ich Hausaufgaben gemacht. Um fünf vor sieben bin ich in den English Unterricht gegangen. Wenn ich nach Hause gekommen bin, habe ich zu Abend gegessen, habe ich geduscht und habe meine Zähne geputzt. In der Nacht habe ich gelesen und bin ins Bett gegangen.

De acuerdo a su tipología textual, es decir, según la forma del discurso, en el texto predomina
la modalidad argumentativa porque su intención comunicativa es convencer al receptor.
Es un texto argumentativo porque su autor elabora una tesis (….) y la defiende mediante una
serie de argumentos de distinto tipo, con los que intenta persuadir de su validez a los lectores,
por ejemplo(…..). La tesis aparece (...), por lo que tiene una estructura (…). Utiliza también una
serie de conectores para modular los argumentos (…) y predomina una sintaxis variada mezcla
de oraciones simples y compuestas (…) para organizar el pensamiento. Es característico de
estos textos el empleo de sustantivos abstractos que podemos detectar en el texto que nos
ocupa (…)
Como en todo texto argumentativo, la función predominante es la apelativa porque el emisor
tiene la intención de persuadir y convencer al lector de la verdad de su argumentación. Esta
función se centra en el receptor y se muestra en las siguientes marcas lingüísticas (…). En
segundo lugar, también aparecen claramente la función representativa, de la que se
evidencian las siguientes marcas lingüísticas (…)
En su parte expositiva, desarrolla el tema exponiendo aspectos objetivos del mismo. Por todo

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