Mendel's Laws and Biotechnology: A Comprehensive Overview

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Mendel’s Laws and Genetics

Mendel’s laws: characteristics is the same characters

Punnett square: is a square that is used to know the probability of an offspring to have a specific characteristics

Genotype: alleles

Phenotype: physical characteristics of the organism

Laws of Mendelian Genetics

  1. Law of Dominance: states that recessive alleles will always be masked by dominant alleles
  2. Law of Independent Assortment: states that genes for one trait are not inherited together with another trait
  3. Law of Segregation: states that 2 alleles coding for the same trait separate during gamete formation

Homozygous(Ho): capital alleles (AA)

Heterozygous(He): one capital allele and the other in lower case (Bb)

Monohybrid: one which change different characteristics

Dihybrid: the formation of gametes which have the half of the alleles

Non-Mendelian Genetics

Non-mendelian genetics: isn’t governed by one autosomal gene (somatic cells) and it doesn't fit Mendel's laws

Incomplete dominance: when a dominant allele doesn't completely mask the effect or recessive allele, and the organism’s resulting physical appearance shows a blending of both alleles

Codominance: both traits show up, both alleles are expressed at the same time. This results in offspring with a phenotype that is neither dominant nor recessive

Multiple alleles: 3 or more alternative forms of a gene (alleles) that can occupy the same locus or place in a gene. However, only 2 of the alleles can be present in a single organism

Human blood type: A and B are both dominant to O

Rhesus factor: another protein in the surface of your red blood cells (RBC)

Polygenic inheritance: 5 eyes colors can be produced by the interaction of just 2 genes and when there are needed more than 3 alleles

Sex-linked trait: genes located on a sex (x or y) chromosome

Diseases: hemophilia= blood can't from clots and some proteins don't work properly and color blindness green-red

Platelets: comes together to close when you are bleeding

Stimulus and Response

Stimulus: is a detectable change in the internal or external environment of an organism

Response: is a (coordinated) reaction to a stimulus that usually increases the chances of survival of an organism

Communication: can happen in 2 ways which are neural or hormonal. It's important because it's used like a main factor in the process of stimulus to response.

Taxes: is a movement of an organism or a cell in response to stimulus. Its directional movement and it occurs in bacterias, insects and protista.

Six organisms of taxes:

  • Chemotaxis is a movement of an organism in response to chemical stimulus
  • Phototaxis is a bodily movement of a motile organism in response to light
  • Thermotaxis behavior in which an organism directs its location up or down a gradient of temperature
  • Aerotaxis is a movement of an organism, especially a bacterium, toward or away from air or oxygen
  • Barotaxis is a movement of a cell or an organism in response to pressure
  • Magnetotaxis is a directional movement of cell in response to a magnetic field
  • Thigmotaxis is the motion or orientation in response to a touch stimulus

Tropism: is a growth or turning movement of an organism in response to stimulus. Its directional growth/ movement of a part and it occurs in plants or by plant part

Types of tropism:

  • Phototropism is the movement in response to sunlight
  • Geotropism is movement towards or away from the earth
  • Thigmotropism is movement towards or away from touch
  • Hydrotropism is a plant's growth response in which the direction of growth is determined by a stimulus or gradient in water concentration
  • Thermotropism is the turning or bending of a plant or other organism in response to a directional source of heat
  • Magnetotropism is the bending of the stem or root of a plant as it grows under the effect of a natural or artificial permanent magnetic field

Sensory Receptors

Sensory receptors: an organ having nerve endings that respond to stimulation

Mechanoreceptor: chiefly in the skin or in the body surface of an organism used for the sense of touch and detection of external stimuli such as mechanical pressure or distortion

Magnetoreceptor: a sense which allows an organism to detect a magnetic field to perceive direction, altitude or location

Sonoreceptor: respond to changes in sound

Chemoreceptor: detect chemical stimuli in the environment an replay that info to the central nervous system

Photoreceptor: a specialized type of neuroepithelial cell found in the retina that is capable of visual phototransduction

Proprioreceptor: is capable of detecting motion or movement and position of the body through a stimulus produced within the body

Baroreceptor: responds to pressure in the wall of the atrium of the heart etc

Nocireceptor: a sensory receptor for detecting or responding to pain

Thermoreceptor: ending in a sensory cell sensitive to change in temperature

Hydroreceptor: a structure that detects changes in the moisture a content of the environment


Biotechnology: using living organism or the products of living organism for human benefit to make a product or solve problems

Cloning: is a molecular technique in biotechnology that refers to the process of creating clones of organisms or copies of cells or DNA fragments.


  • Gene cloning: process in which a gene of interest is located and copied out of DNA extracted from an organism
  • Reproductive cloning: is defined as the deliberate production of genetically identical individuals. Each newly produced individual is a clone of the original
  • Therapeutic cloning: is the production of embryonic stem cells for use in replacing or repairing damaged tissues or organs, achieved by transferring a diploid nucleus from a body cell into an egg whose nucleus has been removed.

GMO-Genetic Modified Organism: is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques

Selective breeding: is a process used by humans to create new organism with certain characteristics

Bioprinting: is the 3-dimensional printing of biological tissue and organs through the layering of cells

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