Math Terminology: Definitions and Examples

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Relatively Prime

When the greatest common factor of two numbers is 1

Rational Number

Any number that can be expressed as a ratio of two integers


One of two numbers whose product is 1, also called multiplicative inverse


A set of ordered pairs

X Coordinate

The first number in an ordered pair; it tells the distance to move right or left from the origin (0,0)

Y Coordinate

The second number in an ordered pair; it tells the distance to move up or down from the origin (0,0)

X Axis

The horizontal axis on a coordinate plane

Y Axis

The vertical axis on a coordinate plane

Coordinate Plane

A plane formed by the intersection of a horizontal line (the x-axis) and a vertical line (the y-axis)

Vertical Line Test

A method for seeing if a graph represents a function; if the graph is ever intersected by the line more than once, it is not a function

Dependant Variable

The output of a function

Continuous Graph

A graph made up of connected lines or curves

Independent Variable

The input of a function

Discrete Graph

A graph made up of unconnected points


One of the four regions that the coordinate plane is divided into by the x-and y-axes


The set of all possible output values for a function


An input-output relationship that has exactly one output for each input


The set of all possible input values for a function

Ordered Pair

A pair of numbers that can be used to locate a point on the coordinate plane


The point where the x-axis and y-axis intersect on the coordinate plane


In a right triangle, the side opposite the right angle

Density Property

The property that states that between any two real numbers, there is always another real number


For a product, a number that is multiplied by itself to form the product


In a right triangle, the sides that include the right angle

Pythagorean Theorem

In a right triangle, the square of the length of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the lengths of the legs

Scientific Notation

A method of writing very large or very small numbers by using powers of 10

Irrational Number

A number that cannot be expressed as a ratio of two integers or as a repeating or terminating decimal

Real Number

A rational or irrational number

Perfect Square

A square of a whole number

Principal Square Root

The non-negative square root of a number


A ratio that compares two quantities measured in different units

Cross Product

The product of numbers diagonal from each other in a comparison of two ratios

Center of Dilation

The point of intersection of lines from all the angles in a dilation


A transformation that enlarges or reduces a figure

Corresponding Sides

Matching sides of two or more polygons

Corresponding Angles

Angles in the same relative position in polygons with an equal number of sides

Unit Rate

A rate in which the second quantity in the comparison is one unit

Unit Price

A unit rate used to compare prices

Scale Factor

The ratio used to enlarge or reduce similar figures

Similar Figures

Figures with the same shape but not necessarily the same size

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