Key Events and Figures in American History

Classified in History

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  1. 1st Continental Congress- All colonies except Georgia went to this congress in Philadelphia in 1774 to respond to the Intolerable Acts

  2. Articles of Confederation- 1st Constitution had no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade

  3. The Aztec- Nomadic tribe of hunter-gathers, capital city Tenochtitlan, bloodthirsty ruler, made many sacrifices.

  4. BTP- Citizens disguised as Indians, dumped tea into the harbor in 1773.

  5. Braddock- British commander during the F&I war. Attempted to capture Fort Duquesne in 1755. Defeated by the F&I Braddock was mortally wounded.

  6. Bunker Hill- The British took over a hill in Boston

  7. Cabral- Claimed Brazil for Portugal

  8. Cahokia- Mound-builder settlement, located near today's East St. Louis, Illinois;

  9. Cartier- French explorer who explored the St. Lawrence river & laid claim to the region for France (1491-1557)

  10. Champlain- French, sailed to West Indies, Mexico, Panama, & St. Lawrence river/Quebec

  11. Columbian Exchange- Exchange of plants, animals, diseases, & technologies between the Americas & Columbus's voyages.

  12. Columbus- Italian explorer, sailing for Spain, reached the Americas in 1492 while searching for a western sea route from Europe to Asia

  13. Conquistadores- Spanish explorers who conquered civilizations in the New World.(GGG)

  14. Coronado- Explored the southwest.

  15. Cortes- Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs & conquered Mexico (1485-1547)

  16. Da Gama- Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498, expedition from Europe to India, led to Portuguese control of the spice trade

  17. De Lafayette- Aided George W, spent time in Valley Forge, French nobleman/soldier

  18. De Soto- Discovered Mississippi

  19. Declaratory Act- Parliament had the supreme authority over the colonies

  20. Dias- Portuguese explorer in 1488 led the 1st expedition to sail around the southern tip of Africa from Atlantic

  21. Duquesne- French fort that was site of first major battle of French & Indian War;

  22. Encomienda- Land grant from Spain to a settler in America, had rights to use Native Americans as laborers on it.

  23. George W- 1st Pres of U.S./commander-in-chief of the Continental Army

  24. Hudson- English explorer who explored for Dutch. Claimed the Hudson River around present day New York & called it New Netherland. Had the Hudson Bay named for him

  25. Inca- A pre-Columbian civilization in the Andes Mountains. Excelled at engineering, & developed new food crops like potatoes.

  26. Intolerable Acts- Laws meant to punish Boston after the Tea Party. Stamp Act

  27. Iroquois- Indian people who were allies of Britain during the American Revolution

  28. James Oglethorpe- Founded the colony of Georgia where debtors from England could begin new lives.

  29. Jamestown- 1st permanent English settlement in North America, found in East Virginia

  30. John Winthrop- First governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630.

  31. La Salles- Claimed Louisiana for the French

  32. Line of Demarcation- This was the line drawn by Alexander VI that gave Portugal most of Brazil & Spain the rest of South America

  33. Lord Baltimore- 1694 Founder of Maryland, offered religious freedom for persecuted Roman Catholics.

  34. Lord De la Warr- New governor of Jamestown who arrived in 1610, Delaware was named after.

  35. Magellan- Was the leader/captain of the first people to circumnavigate the world, led Spanish expedition to Philippines

  36. Massachusetts Bay Colony- Colony founded in 1630 by John Winthrop, part of the Great Puritan Migration, founded by Puritans.

  37. Maya- Noted for architecture & city planning, mathematics, calendar & hieroglyphic writing system.

  38. Mercantilism- The state regulates economy, by taxes, tariffs, subsidies, laws.

  39. Pinckney’s Treaty- Established friendship between the United States & Spain.

  40. Pizarro- Crushed Inca & enslaved them

  41. Plymouth- Settled by the Pilgrims, later merged with Massachusetts Bay colony.

  42. Pueblo- Southwestern U.S, extensive irrigation systems to water corn. Houses were multi-storied buildings made of adobe.

  43. Puritans- Wanted to purify the church

  44. Quakers- Wanted to break away from Church of England

  45. Quartering Act- Required colonists to provide housing for redcoats

  46. Sam Adams- Founder of the Sons of Liberty, a patriot, signed DOI

  47. Sons of Liberty- A secret society formed to oppose British policies

  48. Thomas Jefferson- Founded the Democratic Republicans, creator of the Constitution, & was a president.

  49. Thomas Paine- Wrote Common Sense

  50. Triangle Trade- Shipping goods from Britain to West Africa to be exchanged for slaves, these slaves being shipped to the West Indies & exchanged for sugar, rum, & other commodities, which were in turn shipped back to Britain.

  51. Von Steuben- Prussian drill master & captain who volunteered to George Washington

  52. William Penn- Quaker founded Pennsylvania as a place where his people could be free from persecution.

  53. Yorktown- Cornwallis & his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy & the American army.

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