Essential for non-living things.
- Water: The most abundant substance found in living things. It makes up about 65% of the human body.
- Mineral salts: Substances that can be found in living things in the form of dissolved ions, such as sodium ion.
Unique to living things. Structures made up of carbon.
- Carbohydrates: Made of carbon and water.
- Lipids: Fats, phospholipids, and cholesterol.
- Proteins: Chains of amino acids.
- Nucleic acids: Groups of nucleotides.
The cell: Functions
- No nucleus
- Organelles: Ribosomes
- Bacteria are prokaryotes
- Membranes: Cell membrane, cell wall, and bacterial capsule (not always)
- Flagella and Fimbriae
- Cell membrane: two layers of phospholipids.
- Cytoplasm: Hyaloplasm, organelles, and cytoskeleton.