The Impact of Waterloo and the Holy Alliance on European History

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Waterloo was fought on Sunday, 18 June 1815 near Waterloo in Belgium, part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands at the time. A French army under the command of Napoleon Bonaparte was defeated by two of the armies of the Seventh Coalition: a British-led allied army under the command of the Duke of Wellington, and a Prussian army under the command of Field Marshal Blücher. The battle marked the end of the Napoleonic Wars.


The Holy Alliance was a coalition linking the monarchist great powers of Russia, Austria, and Prussia. It was created after the final defeat of Napoleon at the behest of Tsar Alexander I of Russia and signed in Paris on 26 September 1815. The alliance aimed to restrain liberalism and secularism in Europe in the wake of the devastating French Revolutionary Wars, and it nominally succeeded in this until the Crimean War (1853–1856).




Garibaldi was an Italian general and nationalist. A republican, he contributed to the Italian unification and the creation of the Kingdom of Italy.


Spread (1st wave - France, Belgium, Switzerland, Germany, US / 2nd wave - Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece, Austria-Hungary, Russia)


Chartism was a working-class movement for political reform in Britain that existed from 1838 to 1857. It took its name from the People's Charter of 1838 and was a national protest movement, with particular strongholds of support in Northern England, the East Midlands, the Staffordshire Potteries, the Black Country, and the South Wales Valleys. Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterized by social ownership of the means of production and workers' self-management, as well as the political theories and movements associated with them. Social ownership can be public, collective, or cooperative ownership, or citizen ownership of equity. Anarchism is an anti-authoritarian political philosophy that advocates self-managed, self-governed societies based on voluntary, cooperative institutions and the rejection of hierarchies those societies view as unjust. These institutions are often described as stateless societies, although several authors have defined them more specifically as distinct institutions based on non-hierarchical or free associations.


1788/1795/1807: - / peace of Bavel / Fontenebleau

1808: (1st phase indep. war) mutiny of Aranjuez / abdication of Bayonne / independence war

1810: (1st stage Ameri. indep) Cortes Cadiz

1811: Low abolish manners

1812: Constitution La Pepa

1813: (2nd phase indep. war) Treaty of Valencia / Battle of Vitoria / Low abolish guilds + Inguist / Low abolish manners

1814: (end 1 Ameri. indeo) Defeat Napoleon

1815: Begging of American indep

1820: Absolutist sexenium

1822: Defeat of Spain

1823: Liberal triennium

1824: Defeat at Aguachucho

1825: End of 2 stage American independent

1833: Uninous decade (end 2 phase...)

1833-1839 (1840 end Maria Cristina): 1 Carlist war

1840-1843: Espartero

1843-1868: Isabel (II) — 1844-1852: Moderate decade / 1845-1849: 2 Carlist war / 1854-1856: Progressive biennium / 1856-1868: Last year of reign / 1866: Pact of Orterk

1868-1874: Glorious revolution — 1871-1873: Democratic minarchy / 1872-1874: 3 Carlist war / 1873-1874: 1 republic


Individual rights like equality before the law and established national sovereignty and the separation of powers.

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