Metaphysics-the branch of philosophy that deals with the first principles of things, including abstract concepts such as being, knowing, substance, cause, identity, time, and space.
Epistemology-the theory of knowledge, especially with regard to its methods, validity, and scope.Distinguishes justified belief from opinion.
Ethics-The field of ethics (or moral philosophy) involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior.
Thales-known as the father of western philosophy, famous story about his having once fallen into a cistern because he was looking up at the heavens
Anaximander-believed that nature or the world came to be our of the struggle of fundamental oppositions(like hot and cold and light and dark) cyclid movements of these into and out of the apeiron
Anaximines-said that everything was ultimately air
Pythagoras-developed a theory of reincarnation believed that the body was the source of evil and the purpose of life was to purify the soul believed that the cosmos generated a kind of glorious symphony that we could not hear unless our souls were purified associated with music, math and mysticism
Heraclitus-thought that the constasntly changing nature of reality was never made uniform and insofar as it was governed by a force that he called:The logos wrote in riddles and various paradoxical sayings said you cannot step into the same river twice
heraclitus symbol for reality-fire
Parmenides-said that being neither was nor will be but simply is argued that change and motion were illusions and that we shouldnt listen to what our senses tell us about the world said that reality was one and that nothing changes
Empedocles-said reality consisted of the four basic elements, earth, air, fire and water
Democritus-used his theory of the nature of atoms to explain the character of our sensations (souch as sense of color and the way certain foods taste) thought reality was composed of atoms and empty space (or the void)
Relativism-the doctrine that knowledge, truth, and morality exist in relation to culture, society, or historical context
Skepticism-the attitude of doubting knowledge claims set forth in various areas.
Protagoras-man is the measure of all things,sophist sophists -said we couldnt know the nature of the gods because our mind are too limited
Gorgias-sophist,taught that truth was relative to belief.
attitudes embraced by sophists-skepticism and relativism
phylosphy emerged when-thinkers move from more mythological to more rational ways of explaining the world.
Meno´s first attempt to define virtue-He lists instances of virtuous conduct for men, women, children and so on. For example, the virtue of a man is to manage his public affairs. A woman's virtue, her duty is to order her house and obey her husband. Virtue is relative to the actions and ages of each of us in all that we do.
meno's 2nd attempt to define virtue-virtue is the power of governing mankind.
meno's 3rd attempt-virtue is the desire of things honorable and the power of attaining them.
socrates 1rst criticism-so of the virtues, however many and different they may be, they have all common nature which makes them virtues.
socrates 2nd criticism-is virtue the same in a child and in a slave meno? Can the child govern his father or the slave his master, and would he who governed be any longer a slave? If this is right it would leave out a lot of people, just powerful people will have virtue.
socrates 3rd criticism-were you not saying just now that virtue is the desire and power of attaining good? Then the desire of good is common to all, and one man is no better than another in that respect? Then the acquisition of such goods is no more virtue than the non-acquisition and want of them, but whatever is accompanied by justice or honesty is virtue, whatever devoid of justice is vice.
socrate's argument that it is impossible to know that something is evil and still desire it.-He claimed that all wrong or evil, is only done out of ignorance and not from the intention to do evil.
what is the source of evil implied by socrate's argument?-that no one ever knowingly and intentionally does evil rather than good.
meno's paradox of inquiry-if you know what you're looking for, inquiry is unnecesary, if you don't know what you´re looking for, inquiry is impossible, therefore inquiry is either unnecessary or impossible.
socrates response to meno's paradox with his vision of the soul's immortality and the idea that ''learning is merely recollection''-the soul as being immortal, having been born again many times, having seen all things that exist, whether in this world or in the world below, has knowledge of them all. For as all nature is akin, and the soul has learned all things, there is no difficulty in learning, out of a single recollection, all the rest, if a man is strenuous and does not faint, for all inquiry and all learning is but recollection.
the basic argument about the teach-ability of virtue-virtue is neither natural nor acquired, but an instinct given by God to the virtuous.
the ultimate conclusion of the dialogue-virtue comes to the virtuous by divine dispensation, god just blesses certain peolpe with virtue.
the sun analogy-the sun is the cause of sight itself and seen by it. That is what I called the offspring of the good, which the good begot as its analogue. What the good itself is in the intelligible realm, in relation to understanding and intelligible things, the sun is in the visible realm, in relation to sight and visible things.Whenever one turns them on things illuminated by the sun, they see clearly. Understand the soul the same way.The sun is to the world of appearances as the good is to the visible world.
the divided line-It is a line divided into two unequal sections. The visible and intelligible. One subsection of the visible consists of images, like shadows. In the other subsection of the visible, put the originals of these images, the things, objects. Now the section of the intelligible is to be divided. In one subsection, the soul, using as images the things that were imitated before proceed to a conclusion. In the other subsection, proceeding from a hypothesis but without the images used in the previous subsection, using forms themselves and investigating through them.
the parable of the cave-Plato likens people untutored in the Theory of Forms to prisoners chained in a cave, unable to turn their heads. All they can see is the wall of the cave. Behind them burns a fire. Between the fire and the prisoners there is a parapet, along which puppeteers can walk. The puppeteers, who are behind the prisoners, hold up
puppets that cast shadows on the wall of the cave. The prisoners are unable to see these puppets, the real objects, that pass behind them. What the prisoners see and hear are shadows and echoes cast by objects that they do not see.
comparison of the form of the good to the sun-what the good itself is in the intelligible realm, in relation to understanding and intelligible things, the sun is the visible realm, in relation to sight and visible things.
nature and structure of reality symbolized in the story of the cave-sometimes people get misjudged by their appearance without knowing who in reality the one is inside.
basic moral of the story of the parable of the cave-we may acquire concepts by our perceptual experience of physical objects. But we would be mistaken if we thought that the concepts that we grasp were on the same level as the things we perceive. Everything we see is an ilussion
Augustinian theodicy- Evil always consists of the malfunctioning of something that is in itself good. Like blindness. Judgment, many will go to heaven, others to hell. Evil as sin and the punishment of sin. Evil is the privation of goodness.
Criticisms-a flawless creation would never go wrong. We cant think now of the human specie as having been once perfect and then falling. Attacks the idea of eternal hell, eternal punishment has no constructive purpose.
Irenaean theodicy-soul making theodicy. Idea of the gradual creation of a perfected humanity through life in a imperfect world. God places us in a world of evil so we can develop spiritual qualities that will make us worthy of gods kingdom. First stage-humans brought as intelligence animals with the capacity for moral and spirit development. We are being transformed through our free responses to children of god. Afterlife-become children of god and heirs of eternal life.
Criticisms-protested against the rejection of the fall of humanity. Disagreement to have such a painful creative process even if it leads to an infinite good.
Process theodicy- idea of a god who is not all powerfull and cant prevent evil in humans or nature. Universe that god didn’t create but able to influence. God is an energy that tries to influence the universe to move into harmony and away from discord. Every actual occasion as creativity exerts some power. God shares human joys and subhuman pains. Evil is justified by the good. God has no power to prevent evil so he doesn’t need to be justified.
2 primary goods: harmony and intensity
2 primary evils: discord and triviality.
Criticisms- involves a morally and religiously unacceptable elitism. Their god is just the god of the elite and successful, not the god of sinners, retarded, poor people starving, but still responsible for human existence risking their suffering.
Derived from philosophy of: Alfred North Whitehead, based on a vision that god is not the creator of the universe.