Classified in History

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-Two different ways:
* Disintegration of states: some nations considered that they were under foreign rule within a large empire and fought for their independence. Ottoman empire broke up into Greece and Balkan countries.
* Unification of states: other nations like Italy and Germany were divided into many states but gradually discovered their shared identity
In the 19th century the Italian peninsula was divided into several states.
The kingdom of Piedmont in north-west Italy led the unification under King Vittorio Emanuele II and his prime minister Cavour. But Giuseppe Garibaldi a revolutionary leader did:
-1859: Cavour won French support for the Italian cause against the Austrians
-1860-1861: Garibaldi's revolutionary forces called the red shirts took control of Naples and Sicily. And Vittorio Emanuele II became king of Italy.
-1866: Italy received Venice for its support with Prussia
-1870: the Piedmont se occupied Rome which became the capital of Italy.

- Germany was divided into 39 independent states called German confederation
- the two dominant powers were Prussia and Austria
- 1862 Wilhelm I king of Prussia and his prime minister Bismarck achieved the unification of Germany.
Was achieved in a few years:
-1864: following tension in two states ruled by Denmark
-1866: Prussia fought against its great rival Austria in the austro-prussian war. Prussia then formed the north German confederation
-1870-1871: during the Franco-prussian war France was defeated.
In 1871 the second Reich was proclaimed and Wilhelm I was crowned Kaiser

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