History of Iraq: Wars, Conflicts, and International Relations

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Mesopotamia, also known as the Cradle of Civilization, was ruled by 16 different nations.

The Republic of Iraq gained independence from Britain in 1932. King Faisal ruled until 1979, when Saddam Hussein took power after five different coups.

The Iraq War in 2003, also known as Operation Iraqi Freedom, resulted in the capture of Saddam Hussein, who was found hiding in a hole after Operation Red Dawn.

Saddam Hussein was responsible for the deaths of 148 Shia and 180,000 Kurds in the Anfal Campaign, including the infamous Halabja Attack that killed 15,000 people with chemical weapons.

After his death in 2006, it was revealed that Saddam Hussein had killed 205,000 Kurds, leading to the implementation of no-fly zones over Iraq.

The history of Iraq is also marked by conflicts with neighboring countries, such as the Iran-Iraq War, the invasion of Kuwait, and the Persian Gulf War, also known as Operation Desert Storm.

Following the Gulf War, the United Nations passed Resolution 687, demanding that Iraq destroy all weapons of mass destruction. This led to the establishment of no-fly zones and the implementation of various military operations, such as Operation Desert Fox and Operation Desert Strike.

The 2003 invasion of Iraq, known as Operation Iraqi Freedom, led to the overthrow of Saddam Hussein's regime and the subsequent occupation of the country by coalition forces. This period was marked by the rise of insurgent groups, such as ISIS, and the eventual withdrawal of US forces under the Status of Forces Agreement.

The history of Iraq is complex and intertwined with international relations, conflicts, and the ongoing struggle for stability and peace in the region.

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