Guilds, Migration, and Crisis in Medieval Europe

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The guilds were associations of artisans with the same trade. At the top were teachers, then officers, and finally apprentices with rules about working conditions. Artisans belonging to a guild lived on the same street.


Peasants migrated to cities due to an increase in rural population, leading to city growth. Cities became important as many peasants emigrated, recovering commercial importance and increasing food supply.

Main Causes in the Crisis

Feudal Europe faced problems in the 14th century, with peasants rebelling against lords, urban poor against oligarchy, and massive revolts due to the Black Death.

Religious Crisis

Within Catholicism, the Western Schism occurred, leading to a period of rupture with two popes.

Political Crisis

The Hundred Years War between powerful monarchies spread to other kingdoms.


Europe's population declined due to famine, wars, and the Black Death in the 14th century.

Social Crisis

In the Countryside: Peasants rebelled against lords to free themselves from the manorial system. In Cities: The poorest and lowest levels of artisan guilds rebelled against the urban oligarchy.

The Pope

The highest moral authority of Catholicism with political superiority over kings and emperors. The Holy Roman Empire defends Christianity, and emperors are elected by nobles and bishops.


Assemblies formed by townsmen, clergy, and nobility to advise on draftings and authorize payments for services or taxes.


The floor plan of Gothic buildings resembled a Latin cross. Gargoyles depict monsters, and themes shifted to show Christ as a suffering figure and the Virgin as a loving mother.

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