Fungi, Animals, and Ecosystems: A Comprehensive Study

Classified in Biology

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  1. Fungi obtain nutrients through absorption.
  2. The body of most fungi consists of threadlike hyphae, which form a network called a mycelium.
  3. Some fungal species live in plants and can kill herbivores that feed on the plant. What type of relationship does this fungus have with its host? Mutualistic
  4. What sexual processes in fungi generate genetic variation? Karyogamy and meiosis
  5. Almost all of the members of this phylum form arbuscular mycorrhizae in a mutualistic partnership with plants. Glomeromycota
  6. From the human perspective, which of the following kinds of fungi would be considered the least useful or beneficial? Rusts
  7. Which of the following best describes the physical relationship of the partners involved in lichens? Photosynthetic cells are surrounded by fungal hyphae.
  8. Which feature seen in chytrids supports the hypothesis that they diverged earliest in fungal evolution? Flagellated spores
  9. Fungi of the phylum Ascomycota are recognized on the basis of their production of saclike structures during sexual reproduction.
  10. Both animals and fungi are heterotrophic. What distinguishes animal heterotrophy from fungal heterotrophy is that most animals derive their nutrition by ingesting materials.
  11. What do animals ranging from corals to monkeys have in common? Presence of Hox genes
  12. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of all animals? They have tissues, organs, and organ systems.
  13. Which of the following is radially symmetrical? A doughnut
  14. The animal phylum most like the protists that gave rise to the animal kingdom is Porifera
  15. Which of the following is a characteristic of cnidarians? Gastrovascular cavity
  16. Healthy corals are brightly colored because they host symbionts with colorful photosynthetic pigments
  17. Some species of rotifers consist solely of females. Their method of reproduction is described as parthenogenesis
  18. Which of the following is characteristic of the phylum Platyhelminthes? They are dorsoventrally flattened.
  19. Which phylum is characterized by animals that have a segmented body? Arthropoda
  20. Which characteristic is shared by cnidarians and flatworms? A digestive system with a single opening

  1. Members of the phylum Mollusca are soft-bodied and often covered by a shell
  2. Some species of rotifers consist solely of females. Their method of reproduction is described as parthenogenesis
  3. Which of the following is characteristic of the phylum Platyhelminthes? They are dorsoventrally flattened
  4. All insects have segmented bodies and an exoskeleton
  5. What structure is responsible for gas exchange in most spiders? Book lungs
  6. Which of the following statements is correct with respect to the evolutionary relationship between chordates and invertebrates? Chordates are more closely related to echinoderms than to arthropods.
  7. Which of the following combinations correctly matches a phylum to its description? Echinodermata – bilateral symmetry as a larva, water vascular system
  8. Which extant chordates are postulated to be most like the earliest chordates in appearance? Lancelets
  9. Which of the following is a characteristic of all chordates at some point during their life cycle? Post-anal tail
  10. The diagnostic feature of Chondrichthyes is an endoskeleton of calcified cartilage
  11. A trend first observed in the evolution of the earliest tetrapods was feet with digits
  12. Which of the following are the only extant animals that descended directly from dinosaurs? Birds
  13. Which of these characteristics contributed the most to vertebrate success in relatively dry environments? The shelled, amniotic egg
  14. Which of these are amniotes? Turtles
  15. There are three major groups of mammals, categorized on the basis of their method of reproduction
  16. Which of the following statements about human evolution is correct? The upright posture and enlarged brain of humans evolved separately.
  17. In what respect do hominins differ from all other anthropoids? Bipedal posture
  18. Of the following, which is the most inclusive level of organization in nature? Biosphere
  19. In most cases, the two major climatic factors affecting the distribution of organisms in terrestrial ecosystems are water and temperature
  20. Which of the following types of organisms is likely to have the widest geographic distribution? Bacteria
  21. Which of the following organisms would be found in the pelagic zone? Tuna
  22. A study that looks at how the amount of rainfall affects the size of caribou populations in North America is an example of ecosystem ecology
  23. What would you expect to happen when predators are removed from guppy habitats? All of the above
  24. New world monkeys are found in tropical regions of South America. Their current distribution is the result of ecological factors and evolutionary history.
  25. An ecologist is someone who studies the relationship between organisms and their environment
  26. Which of the following is an abiotic factor? Amount of rainfall
  27. Uniform spacing patterns in plants such as the creosote bush are most often associated with competitive interaction between individuals of the same population
  28. In wild populations, individuals most often show a clumped pattern of dispersion
  29. To determine the density of a rabbit population, you would need to know the number of rabbits and the size of the area in which they live
  30. In the models that describe population growth, r stands for per capita population growth rate
  31. As N approaches K for a certain population, which of the following outcomes is predicted by the logistic equation? The population growth rate will approach zero
  32. The number of individuals that a particular habitat can support with no degradation of that habitat is called carrying capacity
  33. Which of the following is regarded as a density-independent factor in the growth of natural populations? Flooding
  34. Which of the following traits is characteristic of K-selected populations? Offspring with good chances of survival
  35. Natural selection involves energetic trade-offs between high survival rates of offspring and the cost of parental care
  36. Which of the following is an example of Müllerian mimicry? Two species of unpalatable butterfly that have the same color pattern
  37. Two species of unpalatable butterfly that have the same color pattern. Rancher ants that protect aphids in exchange for sugar-rich honeydew
  38. Keystone species are those species whose absence would cause major disruption in a community
  39. An organism's "trophic level" refers to its food source
  40. The energy for nearly every organism in nearly every ecosystem ultimately comes from the sun
  41. During a year, plants never use 100% of the incoming solar radiation for photosynthesis. What is a reasonable explanation for this? Plants cannot photosynthesize as well in warm temperatures as in cold temperatures
  42. Which trophic level is most vulnerable to extinction? Tertiary consumer level
  43. The discipline that applies ecological principles to returning degraded ecosystems to a more natural state is known as restoration ecology
  44. In contrast to bioremediation, which is a strategy for removing harmful substances, biological augmentation uses organisms to add essential materials to a degraded ecosystem

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