A flow of people and organizations that move toward the same horizon from different positions.

Classified in Geography

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types of population pyramids: 1. Constrictive pyramid It has fewer people in the younger age categories, and has been typical of U.S. Populations as baby boom populations shift to more conservative birth rates. 2. Expansive pyramid It represents greater numbers of people in the younger age categories, And is typical of many developing countries where birth rates are high, but Conditions are harsh, and life expectancy is short. 3. Stationary pyramid It shows roughly equal numbers of people in all age categories, with a Tapering towards the older age categories. Countries such as Sweden show Stationary age categories because of relatively low, constant birth rates, and a High quality of life.

Demographic transition: It is associated with the broad sweep of Economic development and social change. • Transition: – 1 St Stage : high birth dates and high, fluctuating death Rates with net growth rates = around 1% – 2 Nd Stage: death rates fall sharply (improvements in Diets, public health and scientific medicine), birth Rates fall (fertility is lagged), with an explosive Increase in pop – 3 Rd Stage: death rates at a low level, birth rates low But fluctuating, with net grow rates = around 1%.

Remittances: It is an increasingly importance aspect of globalization. • It is the flow of funds from international migrant workers to Their home countries (usually to family members in LDCs) • Characteristics: – Unilateral transfers: they do not create any future liabilities – They move countercyclically with the economy in recipient Countries (as a stabilizer that helps smooth out large fluctuations in The national income over the phases of the business cycle). The US Is the largest single source of remittances – They are a source of micro-credit, financing very small enterprises For relatives, or providing start-up funds for self-employment on Migrant’s return

Brain drain: It is the result of students and professionals Choosing not to return home after the Completion of educational courses or training Programmes in developed countries. • Principal recipients: US, Canada, UK and Australia • Principal origins: India, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and former USSR Countries

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