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9. Walter Scott, Ivanhoe (1819) -- This is the fragment of the book Ivanhoe, written by Walter Scott, a Scottish writer who Belonged to the generation of the “Antiquarians”, that tried to rescue the heroic literary Tradition of the past. This historical novel written in 1819 deals with events of the 12th Century, a hundred years after the Norman conquest of England to the Saxons. The Normans occupied England after the victory of William “the Conqueror” over Saxon king Harold at the Battle of Hastings the 14th of October 1066, a date that marks The beginning of the medieval period in England according to most historians. William’s Successor Henry II started a new name for his dynasty: the Plantagenet. During the Years when the story narrated in this text takes place, England was ruled by Richard I Lionheart, one of Henry’s sons. With the coming of the Normans, the A-S aristocracy had been replaced by a French Aristocracy, and a very medieval concept was introduced - feudalism, which was a System of dependence and hierarchy that already primitively existed with the Saxons, But became now more organised. Clearly defined classes appeared in English society: at The top of society was the king, referred to as “Primus interpares”, who was surrounded By great nobles or barons; after came lesser lords, who lived in manors or castles in Villages and to whom the ordinary people or peasants owed their services. The peasantry Was Saxon. This caused a linguistic division in society, referred to in the first paragraph of the Fragment. Although the novel is written in modern English, three languages coexisted in England during the 12th century: French was spoken by the people of highest status, While English was associated to the inferior classes, and Latin remained the language of Knowledge. In the text we find a conversation between two fictional characters: Gurth and Wamba, Both servants of Cedric, Ivanhoe’s father, from family loyal to the Anglo-Saxon Heritage. Gurth is a swineherd and Wamba is a jester. Gurth fails to control his pigs Even with the help of his shepherd dog Fangs, who is half-breed and clumsy.

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