The Fall of the Roman Empire and the Rise of Feudalism

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Re: Beyond Roman borders were barbarians. Near the frontier, the Germanic tribes made economic exchanges. They sold the Romans wood, amber, and slaves. Sometimes there were Germanic raids on Roman territory, so the Romans built fortifications along the Rhine and Danube rivers.

Dre: AD395. The empire was split into eastern and western. Western capital: Rome, Eastern capital: Constantinople. Western emperors were weak, and the eastern became the Byzantine.
Gk: Western empire broke up into small kingdoms in the 5th-7th centuries. Franks: France, Visigoths/Suevi: Iberian Peninsula, Ostrogoths: Italy.
Oí: One of the three monotheistic religions. 7th century on Arabian Peninsula. Muhammad, a merchant from a wealthy family from Mecca, preached Islam. He then built an army in Medina and later conquered Mecca. The five pillars: faith, prayer, pilgrimage, fasting, charity.
Ce: A Frankish kingdom in France. Charles Martel led the army that defeated the Muslims in the Battle of Poitiers. Martel's son, Pepón the Short, became king in 751, and his grandson, Charlemagne, succeeded him. He conquered the Lombard kingdom and gained control over the Iberian Peninsula. The Treaty of Verdun divided it into three.
Swi: 9th-10th century by Vikings from Scandinavia, Magyars from the Asian steppe, and Muslims from Northern Africa.
Feudalism: Main political, social, and economic system in the 10th-13th centuries. A noble who got land from their private armies became the king's vassal. Lords granted small fiefs to knights who became vassals. This created a network of feudal ties.
N: Talk about the classes, the women, and the difference between upper and lower.
Hma: Period of growth in the 12th-13th centuries. The economy improved, agriculture meant there was more food. Society and government. Everybody was free from the rule of lords' culture. Great cathedrals were built, and the first universities were founded.
Lmc: Surrounded by high walls and was divided into parishes or districts. Artisans of the same trade formed guilds, like for shoemakers. Only guild members could make and sell. Members accepted a statute. Guilds controlled production.
Ma: 10th-15th centuries. Romanesque: First appeared in France and Italy. Barrel vault, towers near the main exit, 3-5 naves, has more than one floor.
Gothic: In France. Rose window, stained glass, tympanum really decor., flying buttress.

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