Evolution of Security Threats
Indeed, the 21st Century has seen a change in the types of threats. Threats include the proliferation of ballistic missiles, proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction, terrorism, cyber attacks, attacks on communication and transport, the use of laser weapons, and electronic warfare. Member states are not at peace and face new security threats that are not stated in the 2010 Strategic Concept. The US and European member countries are facing terrorism threats, for instance. After Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, NATO returned its attention to Europe, and the member countries confronted their decline in defense spending. The Wales Summit in 2014 addressed these issues and the implementation of the biggest reinforcement of NATO’s collective defense since the Cold War. NATO’s “open door policy” is based on Article 10 of its founding treaty. Any decision to invite a country to join the Alliance is taken by the North Atlantic Council on the basis of consensus among all Allies. No third country has a say in such deliberations. This policy is still there but it has changed since 1949. There has also been the intensification of military exercises and a return to the security dilemma stated above.
States as the Most Important Actors in Global Governance
States (still) constitute the most important actors in global governance. Explain this statement and provide examples to prove it.
Actors in global Governance: States, IGO, Epistemic Communities, Multinational Cooperation
States: powerful states exert a stronger influence on emerging powers and they also have an increase of liberty action. We know that IGOs → provide the central core of formal multilateral machinery that constitutes the “architecture of global governance.” But we also know that states → create IGOs. This makes them by far the most important actors in global governance. Furthermore: States alone have sovereignty, which has historically given them authority over their territory + people, but also over powers delegated to international institution. States create international law and norms alright no problem