Who were the philosophes and what did they advocate (support)?
Philosophes were the thinkers of the Enlightenment and advocated 5 main beliefs:
- Truth can be found by using reason
- What is natural is good and reasonable
- Acting according to nature can bring happiness
- Taking a scientific view can make progress and advance to better lives
- Using reason can gain freedom
How did women impact the Enlightenment?
Women started protesting for their rights and equality. Influential women like Mary Wollstonecraft argued with men like Rousseau and said that women need education to become useful. She urged women to enter male dominated fields like medicine and politics. Women also contributed to the spread of the Enlightenment.
Explain how Enlightenment ideas spread throughout Europe
Many women held gatherings in salons to discuss and hear about the new ideas of the Enlightenment. Philosophers, artists, writers, scientists, and other great intellects attended these gatherings. Also, a large set of books called Encyclopedia that had many articles and essays by contributing scholars. Eventually, Enlightenment ideas spread through newspapers, pamphlets, and political songs.
Describe changes in art, music, and literature during the Enlightenment.
The neoclassical style of paintings and architecture was developed, it borrowed ideas and themes from Greece and Rome. Classical music emerged which was a simpler, but elegant and original style of music. New musical forms were developed as well like the sonata and symphony. As for literature, novels became popular, they are lengthy works that featured twisting plots and the thoughts and feelings of characters.
What characteristics defined an enlightened despot? (examples of who fit these characteristics)
An enlightened despot is a ruler who followed and supported Enlightenment ideas, but didn’t give up power. Frederick the Great of Prussia gave his people religious freedom, improved schooling, and reformed the justice system, but didn’t try to end serfdom.
How was the social and political ‘Old Regime’ of France organized?
The French were divided into 3 classes or estates. The first estate consisted of the Roman Catholic clergy. The second estate was made up of nobles. Only about 2% of the people made up those 2 estates, but they still owned 20% of the land and had easy lives. The third estate was everyone else, it consisted of the bourgeoisie, merchants, skilled and city workers, and peasants. They had few rights and paid half their income to taxes.