Endocrine System Glands and Hormones: Location and Functions

Classified in Biology

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  • Location: Head 2 lobes - anterior lobe
  • Hormone: growth hormone
  • Target organ: Whole body, skeleton
  • Function: stimulate the growth
  • Location: Head 2 lobes - anterior lobe
  • Hormone: Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
  • Target organ: Thyroid
  • Function: stimulate production of thyroid hormones
  • Location: Head 2 lobes - anterior lobe
  • Hormone: Gonadotropes. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) Luteinizing hormone (LH)
  • Target organ: Ovaries and testes
  • Function: action ovaries and testes
  • Location: Head 2 lobes - anterior lobe
  • Hormone: Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
  • Target organ: Adrenal glands
  • Function: Stimulate the secretion of adrenal glands
  • Location: Head 2 lobes - anterior lobe
  • Hormone: Prolactin
  • Target organ: breasts
  • Function: stimulates breast growth and milk production
  • Location: posterior lobe
  • Hormone: Antidiuretic (ADH)
  • Target organ: kidneys
  • Function: Acts on kidneys. It prevents water loss by controlling the amount of water excreted in the urine
  • Location: posterior lobe
  • Hormones: Oxytocin
  • Target organ: Uterus/breast
  • Function: Uterine contraction and milk expulsion


  • Location: Neck front of trachea. 2 lobes
  • Hormone: T3 (Triodothyronine) and T4 (Thyroxine)
  • Function: Increase the metabolic activity, oxygen consumption, synthesis of protein, use of glucose. Growth regulation
  • Hormone: calatonin
  • Function: calcium regulation development

Adrenal glands

  • Location: 2 glands on the top of the kidneys cortex
  • Hormone: cortisol
  • Function: glucose synthesis, breakdown of fats and proteins. Produced in stress, infections or trauma situations
  • Location: cortex medulla
  • Hormone: adrenaline
  • Function: acts over the ANS. Enables rapid response to stress (increasing heart and breathing rates, muscle strength...)


  • Location: four small glands at the thyroid
  • Hormone: (PTH)
  • Function: Increase the level of calcium in the blood by releasing it from bones


  • Location: Flat, elongated gland behind the stomach
  • Hormone: Insulin
  • Function: Reduces the glucose by entering to the cells. Stored or used as energy specially in liver and muscles
  • Hormone: Glucagon
  • Function: increases the glycemia. By breaking the glucagon into glucose, to the blood


  • Location: Female glands
  • Hormone: Estrogens Progesterone
  • Function: Stimulate the development of secondary sex characteristics. It prepares the uterus for pregnancy


  • Location: Male glands
  • Hormones: testosterone
  • Function: Stimulates the production of sperm. Develops secondary sex characteristics

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