Endocrine Functions of the Pancreas and Other Organ Systems

Classified in Biology

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Endocrine Functions § Pancreatic islets § Secrete hormones insulin and glucagon into blood Exocrine functions § Secretes pancreatic juice into duodenum § Alkaline fluid introduced with enzymes neutralizes chyme from stomach Pancreatic Juice

  • Water, bicarbonate solution, enzymes
  • Bicarbonate solution: neutralizes gastric HCL & shift pH of duodenum to 8
  • Enzymes: § Pancreatic amylase: digests salts § Trypsinogen - digests proteins § Lipase - digests triglycerides


Deliberate land modification through plant cultivation and raising animals for food or profit Dominant economic activity Requires physical and demographic contributions in regions


Globin combined with 4 iron atoms • 280 million molecules per RBC • Forms weak electrical bonds with O2 or CO2 • Oxyhemoglobin • Carboxyhemoglobin..Erythrocytes

Vocal folds:

Enclosed by ligaments Behind thyroid cartilage Produce vocal sounds Controlled by skeletal mm Taut rapid vibration = higher pitch Low mm tension = lower pitch

Bronchi: Tree :

Primary Bronchi 1 / Lung Secondary Bronchi 1 / Lobe Tertiary Bronchi Plates of cartilage Bronchioles Terminal bronchioles Respiratory bronchioles Alveoli

Nodal tissue:

  • Acts as a pacemaker
  • Forms conduction system
  • Sinoatrial Node (SA)
  • Atrioventricular Node (AV)
  • Purkinje Fibers


2 layer connective tissue


receiving chamber § Top of heart


sending chamber § Bottom of heart

Systemic & Pulmonary Circuit

DBL Pump Left side of heart: § Pumps oxygenated blood into systemic circulation § Larger cardiac muscle Right side of heart: § Pumps deoxygenated blood into pulmonary circulation to the alveoli


Line avelorar sack, Internal REsperation


Away from Heart


To Heart.§ Take blood TOWARD the heart § Three layers of tissue but less wall strength due to lower pressures § Serves as a blood volume reservoir § 3 mechanisms that help veins

  1. Contraction of muscles
  2. One-way valves
  3. Movements associated with breathing

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