# Electromagnetism and Atomic Structure: A Comprehensive Guide

Classified in Chemistry

Written at on English with a size of 3.13 KB.

• ## Isotopes

• Same elements with different numbers of neutrons

• ## Ions

• Same element with an unequal number of protons and electrons

• ## Electric Fields

Things with charge (protons and electrons) generate electric fields (E) (Likewise, electric fields can affect things with charge)

• ## Energy and Matter

When atoms or molecules “happen across” energy, [usually] 1 of 2 things can happen: 1) they wiggle-jiggle more [we classify the amount of “wiggling-jiggling” by the quantity of temperature] 2) the energy, if it is a) in the form of a special type of electromagnetic field and b) of a specific frequency, can be absorbed

λ∙f = c

λ = wavelength of the wave [m]

f = frequency of the wave [Hertz, Hz=1/s]

c = speed of light = 3∙108 m/s

Electromagnetic Waves can also be thought of as [massless] Electromagnetic Particles [a.k.a., Photons]

E = h∙f = h∙c/λ

E = energy of the wave [J]

h = Planck’s constant = 6.626∙10-34 J∙s

"All things glow" means everything is producing EM and therefore energy and heat

Wien's Law: λmax∙T=0.0029 [m∙K]

λmax = wavelength of maximum energy emission

T = temperature of the object

Stefan's Law: P = E/Δt =ε∙σ∙A∙T4( as T goes up, total E emitted goes up)

ε = object’s emissivity (ranges from 0 to 1)

σ = the Stefan-Boltzmann constant

A = the objects surface area

T = temperature of the object

• ## Black Body

• Constant temp

• Uniform composition

• Exactly distributed

• Lots of atoms

• Not real

• Conversely, all normal matter absorbs electromagnetic radiation to some degree. An object that absorbs all radiation falling on it, at all wavelengths, is called a black body. When a black body is at a uniform temperature, its emission has a characteristic frequency distribution that depends on the temperature.

• ## Subatomic Particles

• ### Proton

• Positive charge

• +

• ### Neutron

• No charge

• n

• ### Electron

• Negative charge

• e-