The Decline of the Spanish Dynasty (1898-1917)
Assumed control of Spain in 1902, it was a period of political and social unrest. There was a movement called Regenerationism, conservative reformists led by Antonio Maura promoted revolution from above. Liberal reformists, Maura resigned after what became known as the Tragic Week, when a revolt in Barcelona in 1909 was harshly repressed. Opposition parties gained power: Republicans, Catalanistas, Socialists, and Anarchists. The turbulent atmosphere in 1917 led to protest movements across Spain.
The Dynasty and Dictatorship (1917-1931)
Multi-party governments: politicians from different parties joined together to combat post-crisis instability. Social conflict: deterioration of working conditions for laborers and the intolerance of employers led laborers and peasants to revolt. Battle of Annual: Spanish forces came up against the Rifians in 1921. In 1923, Primo de Rivera led a military coup supported by Alfonso XIII. A new military dictatorship took action against many elements of the old system. In 1925, a civil government was established. Primo de Rivera resigned in January 1930, and Alfonso named General Berenguer president.