Count Lucanor - Full Paper

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In the name of God amen. Among the many strange and wonderful things that made the Lord God is one that is most striking, as is the fact that there are so many people in the world, none is identical to the traits of the face, although that all have the same elements in it. If the faces that are so small, they show such great variety, it is not surprising that there are large differences in the desires and inclinations of men. So you will see that no man is like another, nor in the will or its inclinations, and so I give some examples so that you can understand it better.

All who love and want to serve God, but want the same, each one serves a different way, as some do in one way and others another way. Likewise, all in the service of a lord help him, though in different ways. Just as happens with those engaged in agriculture, Livestock, hunting or other trades, which, although they all work in the same, each has a different notion of occupation, and act very differently. In this example, and with others not necessary to list, you can well understand that although all men are men, and so inclined and will resemble so little in the face as they seem in its intention and will. However, it seems that everyone likes to learn those things that are more pleasing. As each person learns more about what you like, if someone wants to show to another must do this by putting the most enjoyable to teach, so it is easy to see that many men find it difficult to understand the deeper ideas, then do not understand or take pleasure in reading books that put them, nor can they penetrate its meaning. By not understand, do not feel pleasure with some books that could teach them what is best for them.

So IDon Juan, son of the Infante Don Manuel, further advance the Kingdom of Murcia, wrote this book with the most beautiful words I found, among which I put some beads with which to teach those who heard them. I did so, the manner of the doctors who, when they want to prepare a medicine for the liver as the liver like it sweet, put in the medicine a little sugar or honey, or something else that is sweet, as for the pleasure they feel the liver to sweet, attracts to itself, and thus to the medicine that will benefit both. The same is true with any member or organ that needs a medicine, always mix it with something that is agreeable to that organ, which makes good use of it. Following this example, I will make this book, which will be useful to those who read, whether by his will are welcome to the lessons therein contained, but even those who do not understand well, can not keep their stories and bring them pleasant style taught to readcation that is mixed, so that, while not desired, will take advantage of them, like the liver and other organs will benefit and improve with the medicines in the substances that are made welcome. God is perfect and source of all perfection, like, for your kindness and mercy, that all who read this book take out the advantage because of his reading, for the greater glory of God, salvation of his soul and benefit your body, He knows as well that I, Don Juan, I intend to. Who found any impropriety in the book and is not charged against my will, but my lack of understanding, but when they find a profitable and well-written example should thank God, for He who is all perfect and beautiful is said and done.

Already completed the preface, I begin the subject of the book, imagining the conversations between a nobleman, Count Lucanor and his adviser, called Patronio.

Story I

What happened to his king and a minister

Once you tell them apart was Lucanor Patronio Count, your adviser, and said:

"Patronio, an illustrious man, powerful and rich, not long ago told me in confidence that, as had some problems on their land, would like to leave them, never to return, and, as I profess great love and trust, I would leave all their possessions, some sold and others in my care. This desire seems honorable and useful for me, but first wanted to know what you advise me in this matter.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, I know that my advice do not really need, but, trust me, I must tell you that your friend is called has said it all in order to try and I think has happened with happened to him like a king with a minister.

Lucanor Count asked me to tell him what happened.

"Sir," said Patronio, a king who had tena minister he trusted much. How fortunate men always envy people, so it was with him, since the other private, suspicious of his influence over the king, sought a way to make him fall into disgrace with his master. Repeatedly accused him before the king, but failed the monarch withdrew his confidence, he doubted their loyalty or dispense with their services. When they saw the futility of his charges, told the king that this minister plotting his death so that his youngest son took the throne and when he had custody of the infant, would with all power proclaimed master of those kingdoms. But until then, had failed to raise suspicion in the mind of the king, the monarch before these rumors began to be suspicious of him, for in the most important issues is not wise to expect compliance, but to prevent them when they still have a remedy. Therefore, since the king conceived of his private doubts, he was suspicious, although he would not do anything against him until he was sure the truth.

"Who orchestrated the fall of real private advised the monarch how to test their intentions and demonstrate that it was true what was said about him. This presented the king a very ingenious tell you right away. The king resolved to do so and put into practice the advice of other ministers.

"A few days later while talking with his private, he said inter alia that he was tired of the life of this world, for it seemed that all was vanity. On that occasion he said nothing more. A few days of this, talking again with this minister, the King came on the same theme, emphasizing the emptiness of the life he led and how much pomp surrounding his existence. It said it many times in so many ways that the minister believed that the king was disappointed in the vanities of the world and that he was not satisfied nor riches and pleasures in which he lived. The king, when he saw that he had convinced his favorite, he said one day he was determined to get away from the glories of the world and wanted to go to a hidden place where no one knew what to do penance for his sins there. He reminded the minister that he thought thus achieve God's forgiveness and win the glory of Paradise.

"When she heard this private to his king, tried to dissuade him with many arguments for not doing so. So he told the monarch that if they retreated to the desert, offend God, for leave to all those subjects and people living in his kingdom, so far ruled in peace and justice, and, when leaving him, would have riots and civil wars, in which God would be offended and land destroyed. He also said that while no longer satisfied his desire for this, should remain on the throne by his wife and his son, very small, they would face great danger in both their property and in their own lives.

"To this the king who, before leaving, and had prepared the way the kingdom is well governed and his wife, the queen and her son, the infant, safe from any danger. All would be this: since it had raised in the palace and it was loaded with honors, being always satisfied with his loyalty and his services, So I trusted him more than any of his private and advisers, he entrusted the protection of the queen and the infant and would give all the forts and bastions of the kingdom, so that nobody could stand against the heir. Thus, if returned after a time the king was sure to find peace and order as you would betray him. However, if I died, I also knew that very well serve the queen, his wife, and educate the prince in justice, while the kingdom remain in peace until the age his son had been proclaimed king. For all this, the minister said the kingdom would be well and he could make retired life.

"Hearing the king privately that he wanted to entrust his kingdom and give custody of the infant, he was very happy, but he gave no sign of it, thinking that now would have on their hands all the power, so it could act as wish.

"This minister was at home, as a captive, a wise man and great philosopher, who was consulted to resolve all issues in court and whose advice was always, they were very deep.

"When the king's private split, he went to his house and told the captive wise as the king had said, between expressions of joy and happiness for his good fortune as the king would betray the whole kingdom, all power and guardianship of the infant heir.

"Listening to the philosopher who was being held prisoner's account of his master, realized that this had made a grave error, for surely the king had discovered that the minister coveted the power over the kingdom and the prince. Then he began to severely reprimand his master telling him that his life and property were at serious risk, as soon as the king had said was nothing to substantiate the allegation that some people had risen against him and do not think that retired life and penance. Ultimately, the king had wanted to prove their loyalty and, if he saw that he was glad to rise to full power, his life would be grave risks.

"When he heard the king's private reasons for his captive, he felt great regret, he realized that everything had been prepared as this saying. The scientist, who saw him so distressed, he advised a means to avoid the danger that threatened him.

"Following their advice, private, that night was cut shave head and beard, dressed in a tunic very rough and almost in tatters, as worn by the beggars who ask at the fairs, took a staff and put on his shoes properly nailed broken though, and sewed in the folds of his rags a lot of gold doubloons. Before dawn his steps to the palace and asked the guard at the gate tell the king that he should rise, so that both could leave the kingdom before people wake up, because he already was waiting, he also requested that everything I say without being heard by anyone. The guard, when he saw the king's private, he was very surprised, but went to the royal chamber and gave the message to the king, also greatly amazed and ushered his favorite.

The king, seeing those rags with his minister, asked him why he dressed like that. Private replied that since the king roomexpressed their intention to leave the desert and was willing to do as he, who was his favorite, did not want to forget how many favors owed, but, as he shared the honors and property of their king, and, now that he was going to other lands to lead the life of penance, he would follow him to share with his master. The minister added that if the king did not hurt either his wife or his son, nor his kingdom, or other property left, there was no reason for him to feel more attached, so leave with him and would always, without being noticed. Finally he said that money was sewn to their clothing that would never lacking anything in his life and that they had to leave, it would be better to do before they could be recognized.

When the king heard this in private, he thought he did that for their loyalty and thanked him profusely, telling how he envied the other private, that were about to deceive, and how he decided to adopt its fidelity. That was how the minister was about to be deceived by his ambition, but God wanted to protect it through the advice he gave wise man captive in his house.

"And you, Count, they must fall into the trap evitéis who is said to your friend, but certainly what I proposed only in order to try and not because I think it. Therefore I will agree to talk to him, that you must show you only seek their honor and profit, without ambition or desire to feel their property, for friendship can not last long when you covet the riches of a friend.

The count saw that Patronio had advised him very well, acted on their recommendations and was very profitable to do so.

And seeing don Juan that this story was good, ordered him to write this book and wrote these poems that condense all its moral:

Do not think or believe that for a friend

men are doing something dangerous to them.

He also others who say this:

With God's help and good advice

man out of fear and fulfills his desire.

Story II

What happened to a good man with his son

Again, speaking Lucanor Patronio Count, his adviser told him he was very worried about something I wanted to do, because if anything did, many people find reasons to criticize, but if it failed to do so, he believed that it could also rightly criticize. Patronio told what it was and asked him to advise him on the subject.

"Sir Count," said Patronio certainly know that you will find many who could advise you better than me and, as God made you a good understanding, my advice will be greatly missed not you, but as I have asked, I will tell you I think about this issue. Sir Count, "continued Patronio, I'd really like you to think in the history of what happened to a good man with his son.

The Count asked me to tell him what had happened, and so Patronio said:

"Sir, it happened that a good man had a son who, though a few years, she was very thin understanding. Whenever the father wanted to do something, the child was pointing out all its disadvantages and, as there are few things that do not have them, thus preventing him carry out some projects that were good for your estate. You, Sir Count, you must know that the more acute understanding of young people, the more inclined they are to merge their businesses, knowing how to start, but do not know how they were finished, and so wrong with great harm to them , unless someone leads them. Well, that youth, by the subtlety of understanding and at the same time, their limited experience, overwhelmed his father on many things he did. And when the father had long endured this kind of life with her son, who constantly annoyed with his comments, agreed to act as I tell you to avoid further damage to his property, for the things he could do and, above all, to advise and show your child how he should act in future endeavors.

"This good man and his son were farmers and lived near a village. A market day the father said that they would both there to buy some things they needed, and agreed to bring an animal carrying the load. And the way to market, going both on foot and the beast no charge, they found men who were returning. When, after the usual greetings, they separated from each other, the returnees began to say among themselves that they do not seem very wise neither the father nor the son, as the two walked on foot while the beast was no weight on it. The good man heard it, asked his son what he thought of what they had said these men, "answered the son that was true, because the animal to be unloaded, it was not very sensible for the two of them were on foot. Then the father sent his son to go up on the beast.

"They continued their journey until they met with men who, when they had gone a little, began to discuss the mistake of his father, who, being old and older, was on foot, while the waiter, who could walk without fatigue, was riding the animal. Again the old man asked his son what he thought about what they said, and replied that this seemed to be right. Then the father sent his son alight and sat him on the animal.

"After a while they found others who criticized the harshness of the father, because he was more accustomed to hard work, was riding, while young, still not accustomed to fatigue, was on foot. Then the good man asked his son what he thought what they were saying these others, "replied the son, in his view, telling the truth. Immediately the father sent his son join him in the mount so that none would walk on foot.

And going and the two men met, they began to say that riding the beast was so skinny and so weak he could barely support their weight, and was very bad that the two were riding in it. The good man again asked his son what he thought of what they had said those, answering the young man who, in his view, telling the truth. Then the father turned to son with these words:

"My son, you remember, when we leave our houseWe were both on foot and the beast unloaded, and you said that you thought the way well done. But after we met some men who told us that that made no sense, and I sent up the animal, while I was on foot. And you said that it was fine. Then we found another group of people who said the latter was not right, and so I sent off and I went up, and you also thought that this was the best. As we met others who said it was wrong, I sent you up the beast with me, because you thought you was better to go two assembled. But now the latter say it is good that the two go assemble this unique beast, and you too seems true what they say. And it all happened, I want you to tell me how we can do to avoid being criticized by the people, for we were both on foot and criticized us, then also criticized us when you went to horse and I on foot again I blame us for going to horse ytú walk, and now we both also mounted criticize us. I've done all this to teach you how to run your affairs hereafter, then some of those horses had to do and, having done all, as we have criticized. Therefore be sure you'll never do something that everybody passed, because if you did something good, the bad and those who profit from it not criticize you on the contrary, if bad, good, loving the good, not may approve or imply that bad action good. So if you want to do it better and more convenient, do you think you benefit more and be sure to do so for fear of what people say, unless something bad, it is true that most of the time people talk of things at will, without stopping to think about what is best.

"And you, Count Lucanor therefore ask me for advice that you desire to do, fearing that criticize you for it and also you criticize them if you do not, I will recommend that, before starting it, You look good than harm or may cause you, your trust you not only your opinion and do not be fooled by the strength of your desire, but that ye may receive advice from those who are intelligent, loyal and able to keep a secret. But if you do not find such an adviser, you must not ever precipitaros you what you do and let pass at least one day and one night, if these things can be postponed. If you follow these recommendations in all your affairs and then find them useful and helpful for you, I advise you never tire of them for fear of criticism from people.

The council seemed good Patronio the count, who worked under him and he was very helpful.

And when Don Juan heard this story, ordered placed on this book and wrote these verses as well and that enclose all the moral:

For criticism of people, while you may not do evil,

seek your advantage and do not be led.

Story III

What happened to King Richard of England when he jumped into the sea to fight the Moors

One day he retired Lucanor Patronio Count, your adviser, and said this:

"Patronio, I rely much on your good sense and I know that, as you may know or not you can not advise you, none in the world can do, which is why I urge you to advise me as best you know where you now say. You know that I am no longer young and that, since I was born until now, I was raised and lived always involved in wars, sometimes against the Moors, Christians and others with the most were against the Kings, my lords, or against my neighbors. In my struggles with my fellow ChristiansAlthough I never tried that the war started because of me, it was inevitable that many innocent people receive great damage. Sorry for this and other sins I have committed against God our Lord, and also because I see anything or anyone in this world can be sure that today there is no death; sure that at my age will not live much longer and knowing that I must appear before God, the judge is not fooled by words but judge each for their good and bad deeds, and in the certainty that if God is in my sins that must suffer eternal punishment, not can avoid the aches and pains of Hell, where no good in this world can ease my grief and where I will suffer forever, knowing however that if God will show mercy and bring me one of theirs in Paradise, there would be pleasure or that in this world that could igualársele. And as Heaven or Hell do not deserve but by works, I ask you, according to my state and dignity, advise me how best to do penance for my sins and obtain grace before God.

"Sir Count," said Patronio much I like your reasons, especially because you have told me that you advise according to your state because you would have asked if I think otherwise they were doing to try, as happened in history other day that I told you of that king with his private. And I'm very glad that ye do penance for your sins, according to your state and dignity, then rest assured that if you, Sir Count, I would like to enter your state and religion or have retired life, you could not prevent you happen one of two things: first, that you would be judged badly by the people, then everyone would say they were doing by poverty of spirit and because I liked to live among the good, the second that I would be very difficult to suffer the hardships and sacrifices of convent life, and then you live it you had to be abandoned or not to keep the rule as it should, I cause great harm to the soul and much embarrassment and loss of your reputation. As you have very good intentions, I would tell you what God revealed to a holy hermit life on what would happen to himself and to King Richard of England.

The count asked him what happened.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, a hermit was very holy life, was very good and many penances to achieve the grace of God. And so our Lord was merciful to him and promised that he would enter the kingdom of heaven. The hermit was very grateful for this divine revelation, as was already sure of being saved, begged God to indicate who would be his companion in Paradise. And although Our Lord told by an angel who asked no such thing, both insisted that our Lord God hermit agreed to give an answer and so informed him by an angel that the King of England and he would be together in Paradise.

"That response did not please much the hermit, for he knew very well and knew that the king was always in wars that killed, robbed and disinherited many, and had led a life very opposite to theirs, which seemed far removed from way of salvation. For all that the hermit was very upset.

"When he saw our Lord God and he sent word to the angel who did not complain or be surprised by what he had said, and should be sure that more and more award honors God deserved to King Richard with a single he jumped with all his good works. The hermit was very surprised and asked the angel how he could be.

The angel told him that the kings of France, England and Navarre had gone to the Holy Land. And when they reached the port, and all were armed for the conquest, the banks saw so many Moors who doubted land power. And the king of France asked the king of England who came to his ship to decide both what they would do. The King of England, who was on horseback, when he heard the messenger replied that he tell his king that as, unfortunately, he had wronged and offended God many times and always had requested time to make amends and ask forgiveness, I saw that, thank God, had come the day I expected, because if there died, as he had done penance before leaving his land and was very remorseful, he was sure God would have mercy on his soul, and if the Moors were defeated would be to honor God and they, as Christians, they may feel very happy.

"When he said, instructed her body and soul to God and asked him for help, making the sign of the cross, he ordered his soldiers to follow him. Then stung with his spurs to his horse and jumped into the sea to the shore where they were the Moors. While near the harbor, the sea was quite deep, so the king and his horse were covered by the waters and did not appear to have salvation, but God as omnipotent and very pious, remembering what the gospels (which He does not seek the death of the sinner but repent and live), helped in that danger to the King of England, prevented his carnal death, granted him eternal life and saved him from drowning. The king then rose up against the Moors.

"When the English saw their king into battle, everyone jumped into the sea to help and rushed against the enemy. Upon this the French, thought it would be an affront to them and not engage in combat, as there are people who support the grievances, jumped all the sea and fought against the Moors. When they saw them launch their attack, without fear of dying and so gallant spirit, refused to meet them, leaving the port and fleeing in disarray. Upon reaching the ground, killing as many Christians could achieve and were victorious, giving great service to the Lord. So great victory began with a leap into the sea which gave the king of England.

"At this the hermit was very happy and realized that God gave great honor to put him in Paradise mate a man who had served in this way and that he had praised the Catholic faith.

"And you, Sir Count, if you serve God and do penance for your sins, repair the damage that you may have done before from your land. Repent for your sins and not pay any attention to the trappings of the world, which is all vanity, nor believe those who tell you that you should worry for your honor, for so many servants keep calling without looking if they have to feed them and without thinking how it ended or how many of those who were only worried about this kind of pride. You, Sir Count, because you want to serve God and do penance for your sins, do not follow this path empty and full of vanity. But since God gave land to serve where you can struggle against the Moors, by sea and by land, do all you can to ensure you have. And leaving in peace your lordships, and having asked for forgiveness for your sins, to do penance and to bless all your good works, you can leave everything else, being always at the service of God and an end to your life.

"This is, in my opinion the best way to save your soul, according to your state and dignity. And you must believe that to serve God in this way will not die before, or you will live longer if you stay in your land. And if murierais serving God, living as I said, you are counted among the martyrs and blessed, for, although not die in combat, good will and good works will make you a martyr, and you want to criticize those who may not do it will not abandon all the cavalry, but wish to be a knight of God and you allow the devil to become a gentleman and worldly vanities, which are perishable.

"Already, Count, I have advised, as you asked me, so you can save your soul, remaining in your state. And so imitaréis King Richard of England when he jumped into the sea to begin a glorious action.

The count was very pleased with the advice he gave Patronio and asked God to help him to implement it, as his adviser and told him he wanted.

And seeing that Don Juan was an exemplary tale, ordered him placed in this book and wrote these verses that sum. The verses read as follows:

Gentleman who sits

should mimic this jump,

not locked in monastery

behind the walls higher.

Tale IV

What, by dying, said to his soul a Genoese

Count One day he spoke with his counselor Lucanor Patronio and told the following:

"Patronio, thank God I have my well-cultivated land and pacified, and all that accurate in my state and, fortunately, perhaps more, according to my peers and neighbors, some of whom advised me to start a company some risk. But though I feel a great desire to do so, for the confidence I have in you I have not wanted to begin to speak, to advise me what I should do in this case.

"Sir Count," said Patronio for you to do what is best, I'd love to tell you what happened to a Genoese.

The count was asked to do so.

Patronio began:

"Sir Count, a Genoese had very rich and very lucky, in the opinion of its neighbors. This Genoese became seriously ill and, noticing that he was dying, he gathered friends and relatives when they arrived, he sent his wife and their children sat in a beautiful room where you could see the sea and the coast, did bring jewels and riches, and when they did close, he began speaking in jest with his soul:

"" Alma, but I want to leave me and I do not know why, because you're a wife and children, here are some so amazing, you feel satisfied, you're family and friends, here you have many very distinguished, you're silver, gold, gems, jewelry, tapestries, Goods to trade, here you never hanker so much more, if you like ships and galleys that will produce wealth and increase your honor, there are, in the port seen from this room, you're fertile lands and orchards, which also are fresh and delightful, are under these windows, if you want horses and mules, and birds and dogs for hunting and for your amusement, and to minstrels to accompany you and distracting, you're home sumptuous, well equipped with beds and platforms and few things are necessary, all this does not lack anything. And since not you satisfied with many blessings and want to enjoy them, obviously not desired. If you prefer to go for the unknown, go with God's wrath, which will be very foolish who get upset by bad comes to you.

"And you, Sir Count, then thank God you are in peace, well and with honor, I will not be risking a good trial now possess everything to start the company that you advise, then quizás these counselors say it because you know that, once involved in the matter, you will have strength to do what they want and follow their will, while you're at peace now, are they yours. And maybe they think this way could prosper them, which would not get while you may live in peace, and what will happen to Genoa with his soul, which is why I prefer to advise that while you may live in peace and quiet, not lacking nothing, do not meddle in a company where you may have to risk everything.

The count was greatly pleased that he gave this advice Patronio, acted according to him and was very successful.

And when Don Juan heard this story, it felt good, but again declined to verses, but it ended with this very common saying among the old de Castilla:

He who is sitting, no lifting.

Story V

What happened to a slut with a crow had a piece of cheese in its beak

Speaking another day Lucanor Patronio Count, your adviser, said:

"Patronio, a man called my friend began to praise and made me understand that I had great power and very good qualities. After all the praise he proposed a business, which at first glance seemed very helpful.

Then the earl told Patronio the treatment proposed by his friend and, although it seemed very interesting indeed, intended to deceive Patronio found the count with beautiful words. So he said:

"Sir Count, you must know that this man loves you and tells you to deceive and that your power and your state are greater than they really are. Therefore, for this deception evitéis that prepares you, I want you to know what happened to a crow with a fox.

And the earl asked him what happened.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, the raven once found a large piece of cheese and climbed a tree to eat in peace without anyone bothering him. This being the crow, the fox managed to pass under the tree and when he saw the cheese began to plot how to remove it. To that end he said:

"Don Crow, have long heard of you, for your nobility and your bravery, but although I have looked everywhere, neither God nor my luck allowed me to meet you soon. Now that I see, I think you are far superior to what they told me. And for you to see that not trying to flatter not only tell you your good qualities, but also the shortcomings that you attach to it. Everyone says that, like the color of your feathers, eyes, legs and claws are black, as black is not as nice as other colors, being so black you makes you ugly, not realizing his mistake because, although your feathers are blackHave a bluish tone, like the peacock, which is the most beautiful of birds. And since your eyes are to see, like black does look better, the black eyes are the best and therefore all worship the eyes of the gazelle, which is darker than any animal. Besides, your bill and your nails are stronger than those of any other bird in your size. It also means that you fly with such speed that can go against the wind, although very strong, something that many other birds can not do as easily as you. And so I think as God does everything well, there will be pampered as you, so perfect in everything, not pudieseis sing better than other birds, and because God has given me the joy of seeing you and I have checked that you are more beautiful than they say, I'd be happy to hear your singing.

"Sir Count, think that although the intention was to mislead the fox to the crow, always told half-truths and thus be sure that the truth will produce the worst evils misleading claim.

"When the crow was so praised by the fox, as was true what he said, thought he was cheating on him and, thinking it was her friend, she did not suspect that by removing the cheese. Convinced the raven for his words and compliments, opened his beak to sing, to please the fox. When he opened his mouth, the cheese fell to the ground, grabbed the bitch and ran with it. So the crow was misled by false praises of her friend, who made him believe more beautiful and more perfect than it really was.

"And you, Sir Count, since you see that even though God granted many goods, this man wants to convince you that your power and advantages over the state actually does believe that by deceiving. And therefore, you should be forewarned and act as a man of good sense.

The count was pleased much that Patronio said and did so. For their good counsel avoid being cheated.

And as Don Juan believed that this story was good, had him put into this book and wrote these verses, which summarize the moral. These are the verses:

Whoever finds beauty you do not have,

always seeks to take away some property.

Tale VI

What happened to the bird with the other birds when he saw the flax plant

Again, speaking Lucanor Patronio Count, your adviser, said:

"Patronio, have assured me that a few nobles, who are my neighbors and much stronger than me, are coming together against me and, through guile, looking for ways to hurt me, I do not believe nor do I fear, but as I trust you, I ask you to advise me whether I should be prepared against them.

"Sir Count," said Patronio that you may do so in this case it seems better to me, I'd really like you to know what happened to the bird with other birds.

The earl asked him what had happened.

"Sir Count," said the swallow Patronio saw a man planted flax and, guided by your wisdom, thought that when the flax grow, men could do with it nets and snares to catch birds. Immediately he went to them, assembled them and told them that the men had planted flax and, if it should grow, should be safe from the dangers and damage associated with it. So he advised them to go to the flax fields and start it before the birth. We did that because it is easier to attack the evil at its root then it is much harder. However, the other birds did not give any importance and would not start the seed. The swallow them often insisted that they did, until he saw how the birds did not realize the danger or worried, but, meanwhile, continued elongation and flax birds could no longer start it with their beaks and feet. When the birds saw the linen was already very full and could not repair the damage that awaited them, repented for not having remedied before, but their lamentations were useless because they could not avoid their evil.

"Before this I have told you, watching the other birds swallow would not remedy the danger that threatened them, spoke to the men, put under his wing and won peace and security for themselves and their kind. Since then the terns live safe and harmless among men, who do not pursue. In other birds, who could not prevent the danger, harass and hunt every day in nets and snares.

"And you, Sir Count, if you avoid the damage that threatens you, be careful and take precautions before it is too late: it is not prudent to see things when they happen or have happened, but who for a simple indication discover the danger and put solutions to prevent it.

The count was greatly pleased that council acted in accordance with it and did very well.

Like Don Juan saw that this was a good story, had him put into this book and wrote a poem which read:

The evils we must start early,

p orque once grown, who shortcuts?

Tale VII

What happened to a woman named Dona Truhana

Another time I was talking Lucanor Count Patronio this way:

"Patronio, a man has offered me one thing and also told me how to get it. I assure you that has so many advantages that, with the help of God could do well, I would be very useful and profit, because the benefits are linked to each other, so that the end will be very large.

And then told Patronio far as he knew. On hearing Patronio replied the Count:

"Sir Count, always heard that the prudent is consistent with the realities and fantasies scorn, since many of them who live what they usually occur Dona Truhana.

The count asked what had happened to this.

"Sir Count Patronio said there was a woman named Dona Truhana, which was poorer than rich, which, going a day at the market, carrying a pot of honey in the head. As I walked down the road, began to think it would sell honey and, thereby give him, buy a batch of eggs, which would spring chickens, and then, with money to give him for the chickens, sheep buy , and that's buying and selling, always with profit, until he was richer than any of its neighbors.

"Then he thought that, being so rich, could marry well to their children, and that would be accompanied by the sons and daughters-street, and also thought that everyone would comment on his good fortune he had come to have so many good although he was born very poor.

"Just thinking about this, he laughed with great joy at their good fortune and, laughing, laughing, slapped on the forehead, the pot fell down and broke into pieces. Dona Truhana when he saw the pot broken and scattered on the floor honey, began to lament and mourn bitterly because he had lost all the riches they hoped to gain from the pot if he had not broken. Thus, because it put all his trust in fantasies, he could do anything I expected and wanted so badly.

"And you, Count, if you like what you say and what they think are true someday, try to always try things that are reasonable and not fantasies or dubious and vain imaginings. And whensoever start a business, not your arriesguéis something whose loss could cause you pain, to get a benefit based solely on the imagination.

The count was greatly pleased that this Patronio told, acted according to the story and so did very well.

And as Don Juan liked this story, had it written in this book and wrote this poem:

In certain situations you can trust

more than you owe fantasies away.

Story VIII

What happened to a man who had to clean the liver

Again speaking Lucanor Patronio Count, your adviser, and said:

"I'm in need of money, but God has made me happy many times. I'll have to sell my land, that for which I feel more affection, but if I do, I will be very painful, or I'll have to do anything but hurt me as much as before. I have to do to leave the burden and hardship that I am, therefore, although I look like, and despite not really need it, come to me to ask many people sacrificed so much money that will cost me. For the wisdom that God has placed in you, I pray you tell me what to do in this case.

"Sir Count," said Patronio I think you are true to yourself with these people what happened to a man who was very ill.

And the count asked me to tell him what happened.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, was a man who was very ill, which doctors said could not be cured unless he made a hole in the side to get the liver and wash it with some medicine. While they were operating, the surgeon was the liver in the hands and, suddenly, a man standing nearby began to ask that a piece of liver to your cat.

"And you, Sir Count, if you want to harm to get some money after going to give to those who need it, you can do for your whim, but never for my advice.

The count was pleased Patronio much what he said, followed his advice and did very well.

And as Don Juan saw that this story was good, he did put in this book and wrote some verses as:

If you think well who you pay,

only very serious damage may await you.

Story IX

What happened to the two horses with lion

Count One day he spoke with his counselor Lucanor Patronio and said:

"Patronio, have long been an enemy that has made me much dano and I to him, so that by deeds and thoughts we are estranged. And now it happens that another gentleman, more powerful than both of us, is doing some things that we both fear that great harm can come. My enemy has suggested that we join together and prepare our defense against that wants to attack, because if the two are united we will face with ease, but if one abandons the other, any of us who go against this gentleman can not beat it, and when one of them is defeated, the survivor will be defeated even more easily. So I have serious doubts on the subject, because if we make peace we must trust each other, so if my enemy that wants to deceive me and if I were in your hands, my life would be in danger, but on the other hand if not we pull together as you suggest, we can come much damage as I have said. For the trust I have in you and for your wisdom, I pray you give me advice to act as better be.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, the important thing at the same time dangerous. So that you know best what you should do, I would like to tell what happened in Tunisia two gentlemen were living with Prince Henry.

The earl asked him to count it.

"Sir Count Patronio began, two gentlemen who were in Tunisia with the Prince Henry were friends and lived together. These two gentlemen had only one horse each, and while they were valued and respected, their horses had a fierce hatred. As the knights were not so rich they could afford separate rooms, and the malevolence of his horses could not share them, led a life very unpleasant. When you spent time and saw that there was no solution, I told the Prince Henry and asked as a favor to throw those horses that had a lion the king of Tunisia.

Don Henry spoke to the king of Tunisia, who were paid very well and sent the horses get into the courtyard where he was the lion. Upon seeing the horses together in that place, before the lion got out of his cage began to fight with a lot of anger. Being in the most violent of his fight, he opened the cageny, when the horses were loose in the yard, began to tremble and moved closer to each other. When they were together, they stayed there awhile and then threw two against the lion, which attacked with hooves and teeth so violently that he had to seek refuge in his cage. The two horses were left undamaged, because the lion could not hurt them even slightly and thereafter, the two horses were such good friends who ate at the same crib and slept together in the same block, though very small. This friendship was born among them for fear of them was the presence of the lion.

"And you, Sir Count, if you think your enemy is so afraid of another because it can cause much damage and you need that much to you that your necessarily have to forget old quarrels, thinking that without you can not defend, I think, just as the horses were approaching gradually to lose the mutual suspicion and were very sure of each other, asyou should trust little by little in your former enemy. And if ever you find it good works and faithfulness, so that you're sure you'll never hurt you, well they are your things, then you will do well and will be very useful come to their assistance that you may not destroy or conquer that other enemy, they often must endure, to forgive and to help our relatives and neighbors to defend us against outsiders. But if you see that your enemy is so constituted that since you have helped him and removed from danger, to take their land except, will rise against you and you can not trust him, it would be very wise to help him but you must departs from him as you can so you will have proven that while he was in a trance in a hurry, he would not forget his old suspicion against you, but waited an appropriate time to cause your injury, which is well illustrated that you will have to help out of the danger he is now.

The count was pleased much that Patronio said, realizing that gave him good advice.

And as Don Juan saw that this story was very good, ordered him put into this book and wrote the verses as follows:

Being protected from harm your lands,

Avoid the tricks that are devised strangers.

Story X

What happened to a man by poverty and lack of other food eating lupins

Another day he spoke the Count Lucanor Patronio follows:

"Patronio, I know that God has given me so many blessings and favors that I can not thank them as it should, and I know that my properties are rich and extensive, but sometimes I feel so harassed by poverty that gives me the same death that life. I ask that you give me some advice to avoid this distress.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, that you may find consolation when that will happen, you should know what happened to two men who were very rich.

The Count asked me to tell him what had happened.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, one of these men reached such extreme poverty that had absolutely nothing to eat. After much effort to find something to eat, found only a bowl of lupins. Remembering how rich he was and be hungry now, with a single bowl of lupins as food, for you know who are so bitter and have such bad taste, she began to mourn bitterly, but as he was very hungry, began to eat them , while she ate, kept crying and threw them hides behind. While he was with this sorrow and this grief, noticed that another man was walking behind him and, looking back, saw the man who followed him was eating lupins fur he had pulled to the ground. It was the other man who told you which was also rich.

"When he saw what he was eating lupins, asked the other why he ate the skins that he shot. The second replied that he was richer than him, but now such was his poverty was so hungry and was glad if I could find at least lupine skins with which to feed. Upon hearing this, the lupins were eating had the consolation, for he saw that there were others poorer than him, having less reason to despair. With this consolation, struggled to escape from poverty and, aided by God, he left her again and again to be rich.

"And you, Sir Count, you must know that while God made the world according to his will and wished that everything is okay, has not allowed anyone to possess all. But since so many things God has been supportive and has given property and honor, if you ever need money or are you in trouble, do not grab sad or discouraged, but think that wealthier and more dignity than you will be so embarrassed they would feel happy if they could help their subjects, even less than what you do with yours.

The count was pleased Patronio much what he said, he consoled himself and with his effort and with the help of God, came out of that penury in which he was.

And when Don Juan that the story was very good, ordered him put into this book and wrote the verses as follows:

For poverty suffer ever discouraged,

p orque poorer ones find one days.

Story XI

What happened to Don James Dean of Ulan, The Wizard of Toledo

Another day he spoke the Count Lucanor Patronio and said the following:

"Patronio, a man asked me to help him in a case he needed me, promising that he would do for me what I would be more profitable and more honor. I startedé to help as much as I could. Without having yet achieved what I wanted, but he thought the matter was already settled, I asked him to help me with something that suited me much, but he excused himself. Then I ask your help, and again refused, on a pretext, and so did all what I asked. But has not yet achieved what we intended, nor will I get if I help. For the trust I have in you and in your mind, I beg to advise me what to do.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, so that in this case do what you must, let me wish you knew what happened to Don James Dean of Ulan, the magician who lived in Toledo.

The count asked what had happened.

"Sir Count," said Patronio in Santiago was a dean who wanted to learn the art of necromancy, and as he heard that Don Illán of Toledo was the most knowledgeable in that time, they marchor to Toledo to learn from him that science. When he arrived in Toledo, went to Don Illán, whom he found reading in a very remote camera. When she saw him enter his house, Don Illán received him very politely and said he did not want to be told the reasons for his coming until he had eaten and to show their appreciation, it settled very well, gave all the necessary and told him that was glad at his coming.

"After dinner, the two were alone and Dean explained the reason for his arrival, begging Don Illán strongly that science teach him, for her desire to know it thoroughly. Ulan Don told him that if it was Dean and highly respected person, could reach the highest offices in Church and that those who have done much, when they get everything they wanted, often quickly forget the favors received, so suspicious that when he had learned the science, I would not do what he promised now. Then the dean told him that for a lot of dignity who achieved, would merely what he wished.

Speaking of this and other issues were since they had finished eating until it was time for dinner. Once agreed, the dean said that the magician that science could be taught only in a very remote place at night and show him where he had to retire until they learned it. Then, taking him by the hand, led to a room and, when they were alone, she called a servant, who asked to prepare them for dinner a few partridges, but they do not roast until he sends it.

'Then he called the dean, they entered two by a stone staircase very well carved and both fell it appeared the Tagus river had to pass over them. At the end of the stairs they found a very large room and a very ornate room where there were books and study room where you stay. Once seated, and while they thought with which books were to begin, two men came through the door and gave it toán a letter from his uncle the archbishop in him that he was sick and quickly go to see if he wanted to arrive before his death. By Dean this news caused great grief, not only because the plight of his uncle but also because he thought he would abandon those studies barely begun. But he decided not to leave so soon and sent a letter to his uncle, in response to which he had received.

"After three or four days, men on foot arrived with a letter to the dean in it of the death of his uncle, the archbishop and the meeting being held in the cathedral to look for a successor, which everyone thought it was he with the help of God, and for this reason should not go to church, it would be better than when he was elected archbishop of the diocese was not present in the cathedral.

And after seven or eight days, two squires came very well dressed, with arms and horsesAnd when they came to Dean kissed his hand and taught him the letters where he said he had been elected archbishop. Hearing Don Illán addressed the new archbishop and told him he was very grateful to God that this news would have come in her house and that as God gave him such a high position, begged him to grant her a vacant dean son. The new archbishop asked Don Illán grant enabling it to his brother deanazgo promising to give another job to his son. Don asked why Illán to go with his son Santiago. Ulan Don said he'd do well.

"They went then to Santiago, where they were received with great pomp and solemnity. When they lived there some time, came a day the pope sent a letter to the archbishop in which he gave the bishopric of Toulouse and authorized him also to leave his archdiocese who would. When he heard Don Ulan yell at him forgetting his promises, he urged that it should give to his son, but the archbishop asked him to consent to granting it to an uncle, brother of his father. Don Illán replied that while it was unjust, he would submit to his will as long as he promised another dignity. The archbishop again promised that this would be and asked that he and his son accompany him to Toulouse.

"When they arrived at Toulouse were very well received by the counts and the nobility of the land. Went there two years, after which the pope's messengers arrived with letters in which named him a cardinal and told him he could leave the bishopric of Toulouse to whoever wants. Then Don Illán addressed him and told him, as had so often failed to meet their promises, and should not make excuses for that vacant seat to his son. But Cardinal begged him to consent that another uncle, elder and honored his mother's brother, was the new bishop, and, as he already was a cardinal, asked him to accompany him to Rome, where it might encourage it. Don Illán complained a lot, but agreed to ask the new cardinal and went with him to the Roman court.

"When they arrived, they were well received by the cardinals and the whole city, where they lived a long time. But Don Illán was praying almost daily to the cardinal to give some benefit to your child church, which the cardinal apologized.

She died the pope and the cardinals elected as new pope this cardinal of which I speak. Then Don Illán and addressed the pope told him he could not put any more excuses to fulfill what had been promised so long ago, said father urged him not so much because they always have time and manner of favor. Don Illán began to complain bitterly, reminding also the promises they had made and had never met, and he also said he expected it since the first time they spoke, and that, having reached such a high position and still no grant any privilege, it could not expect any mercy. The pope, when he heard talk like Don Ulan was very angry and told him that if he insisted, would imprison him for heresy and magician, as he knew, he was the pope, how in Toledo all considered him wise necromancer and had practiced magic all his life.

"Seeing how poor reward Illán gift received from the pope, although he had made, took leave of him, she did not even want to give food for the journey. Don Ulan time, told the pope that, having nothing to eat, have to grab the roast partridges that had sent the night he arrived, and so he called his servant and ordered him asase partridges.

"When Don Illán said this, he met the pope in Toledo, as dean of Santiago, as it was when there was, being so great shame he did not know what to say to apologize. Ulan Don looked at him and told him he could go well because I had found what to expect from him, and I would give the partridges misused if you invite to dinner.

"And you, Sir Count, as you see the person you have helped so much thanks you do not, you need not strive for it and still help you, then you can expect the same treatment she received from that gift Illán dean of Santiago.

The earl thought it was this good advice, followed it and did very well.

And as Don Juan knew that the story was good, ordered him put into this book and wrote the verses, which read:

The higher you climb one whom you help them,

will give less support when you need it.

Story XII

What happened to the slut with a cock

After Earl spoke Lucanor Patronio, his adviser, as follows: Patronio, you know that, thank God, my domains are large, but not all together. Although I have very well-defended lands, others are not and some are so far from the land where my power is greater. When I'm at war with my lords, kings, Or more powerful neighbors to me, many who call my friends and I want some advice frighten and scare me, advising me that in no way is in my dominions more paragraphs, but I take refuge in those with the best defenses, defenses and bastions, which are in the middle of my land. As you know very loyal and very knowledgeable in these matters, I ask your advice to make it more convenient now.

"Sir Count," said Patronio in serious and problematic issues is too risky to give advice because many times we can make mistakes, not being sure how things will end. We often see that, thinking one thing after another to leave because we fear that goes wrong, then goes well and what we thought would go well, then something is wrong, therefore, if the counselor is loyal and just intention, when giving advice has felt in serious trouble and if it does not work, the counselor is humiliated and disgraced. Because I tell you, Count, I would advise avoided, as this is a very delicate and dangerous, but as you would be I who will advise them, and I can not refuse, I'd love to tell you what happened to a cock with a fox.

The earl asked him to count it.

"Sir Count," said Patronio was a good man who had a house on the mountain and raised many chickens and roosters, and other animals. It happened that one day one of their birds away from the house and entered the field without thinking of the danger he could run, when he saw the fox, who was approaching him very quietly to kill him. Seeing it, the rooster climbed a tree that was a bit far from the other. Seeing the fox that the rooster was out of reach, he took great regret that he had escaped and began to think how I could get it. She went straight to the tree and began to flatter the cock, begging him to come down and continue your walk in the woods, but the rooster was not persuaded. Seeing the fox that flattery would not get anything started threatening saying that since he did not trust her and look for reasons to regret it. But as the cock he felt safe, no attention to his threats or flattery.

"When the fox saw that he could not fool with these tricks, went to the tree and began to gnaw the bark with their teeth, taking long strokes with the tail on the trunk. The wretched of the rooster scared for no reason and without thinking that the fox threat that could never hurt him, was filled with fear and tried to flee to other trees where they expected to find more secure and therefore could not reach the top of the mountain, flew to another tree. Seeing no reason fox is scared, chased him from tree to tree until he catch it and eat it.

"And you, Sir Count, because you see so often involved in wars that can not avoid, not without reason, nor be dismayed fear threats or those of anyone, but neither should you trust someone who can hurt you, but always strive defend your lands more remote, that a man like you, good soldiers and taking food, Not in danger, although the place is not very well fortified. And if unwarranted fear abandon the farthest outposts of your estate, be sure that you go to leave you remove other landless demostréis because as fear or weakness, leaving some of your fields, more effort will take from your enemies in the I still remain. Also, if you and your weaknesses before you show you some increasingly emboldened enemies will come a time when you remove it all, but if you position your first right, you'll be sure as the rooster would have been had he stayed in the first tree. So I think this tale of the rooster should know all those castles and fortresses in their care, to avoid being frightened by threats or deception, or with moats and towers of wood, or other similar weapons that only serve to inspire fear of the besieged. Yet another thing I would add that you may know that snly tell you the truth can never conquer a fortress but climbing walls or minándolos, but if the wall is tall ladders are useless. And to undermine a wall a long time ago. And so, all the strengths that are taken to the besieged is because they lack something or because they are afraid without good reason. So I think, Count, that the noble as you, and even those who are less powerful, they should look well what defensive action undertaken, and carry it out only when they can not prevent or excuse. But the company started, you must not atemorizaros for the world, although there are grounds for it, because it is well known that, of those in danger, beyond which they defend better than flee. Think, finally, that if a puppy that wants to kill a powerful mastiff stands still and he shows his teeth, can escape many times, but if he runs, even a large dog, be caught and killed immediately.

The count was pleased about all of this Patronio told, acted as his counsel and did very well.

And as Don Juan thought that this was a good story, ordered him put into this book and wrote a poem which read:

Do not ever feel scared for no reason

and defend yourself well, as a boy.


What happened to a man who hunted partridges

He spoke again Lucanor Patronio Count, your adviser, and said:

"Patronio, some powerful nobles, and others less so, sometimes they hurt my land or my subjects, but when we met, they apologize for it, saying they did forced by necessity, without feeling it a lot and avoiding it. As I want to know what to do in such circumstances, I pray you give me your opinion on this matter.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, what you have told me, and about which you ask me advice, is much like what happened to a man who hunted partridges.

The count was asked to be told.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, was a man who spread their nets for catching partridges, and when he had taken enough, the hunter went back to the network where their prey. As he was picking up, taking them out of the net and killed them, and while it did, the wind, giving him full in the eyes, made him mourn. Seeing this, one of the partridges, which was within the mesh, began telling her friends:

"- Look, friends, what's wrong with this man! Although it's killing us, see what feels our death and so he cries!

But another partridge, which was hovering around, that being older and wiser than the other had not fallen into the network, he replied:

'Friends, I thank God because I have saved the network and now I ask you to save us all my friends and me from a man who seeks our death, but with tears implies you're sorry.

"And you, Sir Count, I always avoided that hurts, but you implies you're sorry, but if someone hurts you, not for your disgrace, and the damage is not too serious for you, whether it is a person that you're grateful, it has also forced by circumstances, I advise you not grant it much importance, but you must be careful not to repeat so often you get to damage your reputation or your interests. But if you voluntarily hurts, break with him so that your possessions and your reputation are not injured or harmed.

The count saw that this was good advice Patronio gave him, followed him and all went well.

And when Don Juan that the story was good, ordered him put into this book and wrote this poem:

Who do you wrong, albeit reluctantly,

always looking for ways of being able to zoom out.

Story XIV

Santo Domingo miracle that when he preached at the burial of a trader

Another day, talking about their business Lucanor Patronio Count, said:

"Patronio, some advised me to collect as much money as possible, and even I say it suits me more than anything else. So I beg you give me your opinion on this matter.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, although the great lords will be necessary to have money on many occasions and, above all, for your duties by incumpláis never his fault, why not think you can raise money only, leaving other obligations you have with your subjects, as well as your own status and dignity, as if not doing so could that will happen to a Lombard who lived in Bologna.

The earl asked him what had happened.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, Bologna had a Lombard who accumulated great wealth without ever looking at their source, since only sought to increase day by day. The Lombard very seriously ill, and one of his friends when he saw him so close to death, asked him to confess with St. Dominic, who was then in Bologna. The Lombard agreed to confess.

But when they called holy, this saw it was God's will that that evil man who deserved punishment suffered their sins and therefore was not, but sent a priest to confess. When the children learned that the trader had sent to St. Dominic, became sad, thinking that the good saint would send his father back all their property in exchange for the salvation of his soul, so this way they would in the misery. Thus, upon reaching the monk told him that his father was in sweats and call him when I was a little better.

"Soon, the father lost his speech and died without being able to make it more accurate for the salvation of his soul. When the next day took him to bury, Dominic asked to preach at the ceremony. So did the saint, but when he had to talk about the deceased, he cited the words of the gospel who say 'Ubi est thesaurus tuus, ibi est cor tuum', they mean in romance: "Where your treasure is, there your heart. With that, he addressed the audience with these words:

"Brothers, that you may see that the gospel always tell the truth, seek the heart of this man and died, though I afam that you can not find it within the body but in the chest where he kept his treasure.

"They began to seek the heart in the body, but did not find it there but in the ark, and had assured the saint. His heart was full of maggots and smelled worse than rotten stinking thing in the world.

"And you, Sir Count, although the money, as I said before, is good, always seek two things: get it by honest and lawful means and not as you see yourself wanting to have to do what suits you or not causing damage to your honor or your duties, because before you should try to gather a treasure of good works for God to bring mercy and good reputation with the world.

The count was greatly pleased Patronio this advice and acted as he did and did very well.

And when Don Juan that this story was very good, he did put in this book and wrote this poem:

A gang especially true treasure,

despise, finally, the perishable commodity.

Story XV

What happened to Lorenzo Suarez at the site of Sevilla

One day he spoke Patronio Lucanor Count, your adviser, as follows:

"Patronio, enemy he once had as a very powerful king, and when the war had lasted long, we saw that we were more desirable to sign a pact. Although we consider ourselves allies now and there are no conflicts between us, always suspicious of each other. In addition, people from his party and even my fill me with fear, they say that King looking for an excuse to attack. For your loyalty and good understanding, I beg to advise me what to do in this case.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, this is a very sensitive advice for several reasons, for anyone looking to embarrass you can do very easily, because if you try to imply that serve you, warn you of danger and warn against him, although it seems to feel your hurt, you can always make you suspicious of your partner. And with that suspicion, You shall take such measures that will be the beginning of a new war, without any of your advisers can be blamed, because he who tells you not worry about the risks of combat shows little concern for your life, whoever you reforcéis say no defenses nor abastezcáis your food, men and weapons, shows little interest in your lordships, and whoever tells you that you will not protejáis with friends and vassals, who are well cared for and happy with you, shows very little care your honor and your protection. Know, moreover, it is very dangerous not to do these things, but if you do can be the beginning of new troubles and disturbances. However, as you ask me my opinion on this very sensitive matter, I wish you knew what happened to a nice gentleman.

The earl asked him to count it.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, when the holy and blessed King Ferdinand had besieged Sevilla, had many brave knights, Among which were the three most skilled in handling weapons, one was Don Lorenzo Suarez Gallinato, the other Don Garcia Perez de Vargas and the third can not remember his name. The three discussed a day about which of them was the best and most skilled. As it reached an agreement, decided to arm themselves very well and reach the three walls of Seville to strike with their spears the gates of the city.

"The next day morning, the three put on their armor and went to town. When the Moors that guarded walls and towers were that it was only three Christian knights, messengers and thought it would be neither attacked them, so that the three gentlemen passed the bridge, the Barbican, arrived at the gates of the city and beaten with the tips of their spears. This done, he turned the reins and returned with the army.

"Seeing the Moors who did not bring any message, they felt humiliated and wanted to go after them, but when he opened the doors of the Muslim wallThe three men, who turned slowly, were already quite far. From the city came after him more than fifteen hundred horsemen, and over twenty thousand infants. When they saw the three gentlemen who were persecuted, turned their horses against their enemies and waited. Closer to the Moors, that gentleman, whose name I forget, was launched against them and began to fight bravely, while Don Lorenzo Suarez and Garcia Perez was not involved, the closer the Moors, Don Garcia Perez de Vargas were faced, while Lorenzo Suarez was still fighting, which only made when the Moors attacked him, but then eased into his enemies and began to do amazing things with their arms and heroic.

"When from the camp saw the three warriors face the Moors, came to their aid. Although the three most hazardous moments passed and received numerous wounds, God did not want to die either. So great was the battle between Moors and Christians that King Ferdinand had to take charge of your exército, which were won. When the king returned to his tent, sent to apprehend the three gentlemen saying they deserved death for having committed such a folly, as did the army entered into combat without orders of King and risked their own lives unnecessarily. But then, to the entreaties of the most illustrious captains, the king ordered the release of the three that I have said.

"Knowing that the king had kept the discussion and its consequences, called the noblest knights to decide who was the bravest. Once collected, maintained a fierce controversy, as some said he had shown more courage on the Moors who attacked first, others second and others say the third. Each defended his views with those arguments that everyone seemed to be right. And, indeed, had behaved so heroically that anyone could be taken as the bravest, but to finish the discussion agreed the following: Yes, if it has been less, the Moors were fighting could have been defeated only by the courage and efforts of the three gentlemen, the first dealing with them would be the best, as he began what may be done but if the enemies were so numerous that those three could not, the first attack did not driven by its value, but because shame prevented him from leaving the field and run, but as the flight was impossible, the lack of calm in the face a very intense fear made him start his attack. At the second attack, he learned to master their fear over time, it felt more courageous. But Don Lorenzo Suarez, who at no time was left dominated by fear and waited until the Moors attacked him, he believed the bravest of the three.

"And you, Sir Count, since you see that you are trying to scare and that war would be so overwhelming that once you could not finish it, rest assured that the more your fear dominéis, Show greater courage and wisdom you give: because, as you have your insurance and what you can not do much damage by surprise, I advise you not lose composure. Nor can cause you serious harm, wait and then they attack you will see that it is just unfounded fears, a product of those seeking to live and to live in confusion. Think also, Count, both friends of yours like those of a powerful lord does not want peace or war, for which no resources, only the noise and disorder, during which they can steal and attack your lands and coaccionaros to you and yours to take away from what you have and what you do not have, because that castigate not fear evil because you do. Therefore, even your enemies Urdan or do something against you, to get them as guilty of the new contest, conseguiréis double victory: first, because God will be with you, and your help is greatly needed in such things, and second, because all the world will see that you are right in doing so. Also, unless you do what you ought not, perhaps not pick up the other against you, you will live in peace and will do service to God and benefit the good, without seeking your harm to please those who wish to harm you, to which neither they the evil mind could cause to your life or property.

The count was very pleased with this advice he gave Patronio, followed his teachings and was very good.

And as Don Juan knew that this story was very good, ordered him to write this book and wrote these verses as follows:

Driven by fear, do not consummate attack

beat that always knows who always knows how to wait.

Story XVI

The answer I gave Fernan Gonzalez Nuno Lainez, their relative

Count, Patronio spoke a day with this:

"Patronio, as you know, I am no longer young and I have also spent many hardships and difficulties in my life. Honestly I tell you now want to rest and devote to the game, forgetting worries and heavier tasks, as you know I always advised me very wisely, I pray you tell me what I should do.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, although you're right in what you say, I'd like to hear what once said Fernan Gonzalez Nuno Lainez.

The Count asked me to tell him what had happened between them.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, Fernan Gonzalez lived in Burgos, having fought very hard to defend their land. Once there was more calm and at peace, Nuño Lainez said that it suited him away from so many disputes and strife, to rest himself and his people.

"He said the Count that anyone in the world as much as he would like to relax and enjoy peace if I could, but Don Nuño knew they were at war with the Moors, with Leon and with Navarre, as if they were devoted to leisure, his opponents would attack them immediately, and if they left with good hunting, falconry birds, following the course of Arlanzón, mounted on mules good fatThat can not keep defending their land or could do, but I happen to like the old proverb says, "She died the man and he died his name." But if, on the contrary, we want to forget the comforts and strive to defend this young kingdom and enhance our honor, say when we die, "the man died, but his name did not die." And we must die, happy or unhappy, I think it's good to leave, preferring relaxation and pleasure, that after death it keeps alive the good name of our actions and deeds.

"To you, Count, since you know that you will die I will never advise that, to seek pleasure and relaxation, tire of doing what corresponds to your state, so that once you dead, long live the fame of your large companies.

The count was very pleased with this advice from Patronio, followed him and did very well.

And as Don Juan knew that this was a very good story, ordered him to write this book and wrote the verses as follows:

If for relaxation and pleasure lose its good name,

at the end of life we will be disgraced.

Story XVII

What happened to one man to another who invited him to eat

Again speaking Lucanor Patronio Count, your adviser, and said:

"Patronio, a man came and told me to do something very helpful for me, but, tell me, I thought his offer was so weak that he would prefer not to accept it. I think that on the one hand, I am interested to do what you suggest, although I hesitate to accept his offer because I think it has made me only to be met. As you are such a good view, I pray you tell me what you think we should do in this case.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, thing to do in this what I think is more favorable for you, I'd really like you to know what happened to one man to another who invited him to dinner.

The count asked me to tell him what had happened between them.

"Sir Count," said Patronio had an honest man who was very rich but he was totally ruined, and it was very embarrassing and humiliating to ask for help to his friends to eat. For this reason, poverty and often went hungry. One day I was very worried because I had nothing to eat, and happened to pass by the house of an acquaintance who was eating, when his friend saw him go, he said just a courtesy if he would eat with him. The honest man, driven by great need, he said, after washing your hands:

"" With pleasure, my friend, because both have asked me and insisted to eat with you, that I would make a grave discourtesy if your friendly and warm rejected offer.

Whereupon he sat down to eat, your hunger and was happier. Soon, God was propitious and pulled him from the misery in which he lived.

"And you, Sir Count, and judge what this man offers you is very helpful for you, pretend that you are willing to please, never thinking that he does to fulfill, and do not expect much to insist, as it could be that will not renew its offer and then it would be humiliating to ask you what you now offer.

The count was good and thought it was good advice, and acted as he found it very beneficial.

And when Don Juan that the story was very helpful, ordered him to write this book and wrote this poem:

When your benefit could find

you should not make much urging.


What happened to Don Pedro Melendez Valdes when he broke a leg

Another day he spoke Patronio Lucanor Count, your adviser, and said:

"Patronio, as you know, I am in dispute with a man, a neighbor of mine and very powerful. We have both agreed to go to a village and first come will stay with her, but the other will lose. Also know that it is ready all my people and if I were the first, with the help of God, I'm sure I would much honor and great profit, but since I'm not healthy, I see that I can not and therefore I am very concerned, and although losing this villa really hurts, I tell you sincerely that I'd be worse than him enhance his power and his honor. For the trust I have in you, I pray you tell me what I do in these circumstances.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, although you are right to mourn, so that in cases like this ye always better, I'd like you to know what happened to Don Pedro Melendez Valdes.

The Count asked me to tell him what happened.

"Sir Count," said Patronio was Don Pedro Melendez Valdes a distinguished gentleman of the kingdom of Leon, who, when he had a setback, we always read: "Blessed be God, but because he has done will be for my good ' .

"And you must know that Don Pedro Melendez was adviser to the king of Leon and his private, so their enemies, motivated by jealousy, accused him before the king of crimes so serious that the king decided to send him to kill.

"But while Pedro Melendez at home, he received an order from the king commanded to go to the palace immediately. Know that those who had to kill were waiting a half miles from home. When Don Pedro Melendez was to get his horse to go with the king, fell down a ladder and broke his leg so his servants and attendants were very upset and began to reproach his trust in God, saying:

"- Well, Pedro Melendez! Vos, who say that what God does is always for your good, take what God sends you now!

"But he said they were sure that even though this misfortune much it bothered them, they would see as it was for your sake, for God had commanded. And as much as they insisted, could not change their attitude.

"Those who were waiting to kill him by King, when they saw that Pedro did not arrive and found out what happened, they returned to the palace and told the king there why his orders had not been met.

"For a long time without Pero Melendez was able to ride and this time the king knew that the accusations against Don Pedro were totally false, so he seized his slanderers. Then he went to visit Don Pedro, told the outrages that had risen against him, his resolve to kill him and finally asked forgiveness for the mistakes he had made and gave him new honors and favors to compensate. Then he had run before him who had falsely accused Don Pedro.

And so God spared Don Pedro Melendez lost fame and even life itself, resulting in certain words that used to say: "What God always sends us the best."

"And you, Sir Count, do not mourn for this inconvenience you are suffering now, because you must know that everything God does is for our good, and if they believe He will help you at all times. But you must also know that things that happen to us are of two kinds: some place we can remedy when others have no solution. In the first we must do our utmost to find a solution without leaving everything in the hands of Providence or luck, because this would tempt God, since, as have the understanding and reason man must try to remedy many setbacks and misfortunes may befall him. However, in the things that you can not remedy, we think that, by God's will occur, will be for our good. As the disease of which you speak is what God commands and we can not remedy, think that if it comes from Him, the better it can happen, God already have it all works out as you desire.

The Count thought Patronio told the truth and gave good advice, worked well and did very well.

And as Don Juan saw that this was a good story, had it written in this book and wrote the verses as follows:

Do not complain about what God doeth

p esu is for your sake when He wills.

Nineteenth story

What happened to the crows with owls

He spoke the other day Lucanor Patronio Conde, his counselor, and said:

"Patronio, I'm struggling with a very powerful enemy, who was at home for a relative who had grown up with him and who had helped many times. Once, in a dispute between them, my enemy inflicted heavy damage and dishonored his relative that, although he was very much obliged, thinking of those offenses and looking for ways to get revenge, wants to ally with me. I think I would be very useful man, it could advise the best way to hurt my enemy, who knows him very well. For the great confidence that I deserve and for your good sense, I beg to advise me how to solve this question.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, the first thing I say is that surely this man has come to you to deceive, and that ye may know how you try to get, I want you to know what happened to the crows with owls.

The count asked what had happened in this case.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, crows and owls were at war with each other, but the crows were the worst part because owls only come out at night and day remain hidden in very hidden places, flying under the dark until the trees where the crows are sheltered, beating or killing those who could. As the crows suffered much, one of them very experienced, seeing the damage that his men were talked to their relatives the crows and found a way to get revenge on his enemies owls.

"This was the way he thought and put into practice: the crows tore the feathers, except one of the wings, so flying very poorly. Thus, covered with wounds, he went with the owls, who was evil and the suffering it had caused the crows because he did not want war against owls, so if they accepted it as a companion, was prepared to tell the best ways to get back at the crows and make them great harm.

"The owls heard it, were happy because they thought that this ally would defeat their enemies, the crows, which began to treat him very well and made him a sharer of his secret plans and projects for the fight.

"However, among the owls had one that was very old and had much experience that when he heard what the crow, they discovered the hoax and was prepared to explain the ringleader of the owl, saying that surely , raven that had joined them to share their plans and prepare for defeat, so they should get out of there immediately. But this experienced owl could not get her brothers heed, therefore, when he did not believe it, he left them and went to live in a place where the crows could not find it.

"Owls, however, continued to rely on the crow. When he again grew feathers, owls told that since he could fly, would you move for the crows to tell where they were and, thus meeting all the owls, their enemies could destroy the crows, which liked a lot.

"By the crow where his brothers, met everyone and they knew the plans of the owls attacked during the day when they do not fly and are quiet and unsuspecting, and destroyed and killed so many owls, the crows were as the only winners.

"It happened to the owls, by relying on the raven that is by nature an enemy.

"And you, Sir Count, since you know that this man who wants to ally with you is your enemy allegiance, for which he and his family are enemies too, so I advise you turn away from your company because it surely intends deceit and for your evil. But if he wants to serve you from outside your fields, so that you never know your plans and can harm you and really did so much damage to your enemy that he could never make peace with him, then you can trust that disgruntled relative, making it always with care so that you can not be dangerous.

The Count thought that this was good advice, acted as him and he was very helpful.

And as Don Juan knew that this was a very good story, ordered him to write this book and wrote these verses as follows:

A s previously used to be your enemy

or anything or you will never believe.

Story XX

What happened to a king with a man who said he knew how to make gold

One day, he spoke Patronio Lucanor Count, your adviser, as follows:

"Patronio, a man came to me and has said it may give me great wealth and great honor, although this should give me some money to start its work, which, once completed, can bring ten to one. For the wisdom that God has placed in you, I beg to advise me what to do in this case.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, for you do in this that most suits you, I would tell you what happened to a king with a man who said he knew how to make gold.

The count asked what had happened.

"Sir Count," said Patronio was a rogue who was very poor and aspired to be rich to escape from poverty. That rogue is learned that a little judicious king was fond of alchemy to make gold.

"Therefore, the rogue took a hundred gold doubloons, the split into very small pieces and mixed with other things more, making for a hundred balls, each of which weighed one doubles gold more things that had been added. Dressed in clothes of the rogue serious and respectable person, he took the ball, put them in a bag, went to the city where the king lived there and sold them to a grocer, who asked the utility of those balls. The rogue replied that served for many things and, above all, to alchemy, then sold them for two or three doubles. The grocer asked the name of the balls, answering the rogue who called tabardie.

"The rogue lived some time in that city, leading a life very collection, but telling one and all, in secret, that he could make gold.

"When this news reached the king summoned him and asked if it was true what was said about him. The rogue, but would not admit it at first saying he could not make gold in the end let him know that it was capable, but advised him that this issue should not trust anyone and risking much money. However, continued the rogue, if the king had authorized him, would make a demonstration in front of him to show how little he knew of that science. The king thanked him profusely, feeling that, by his words, not misleading. The rogue asked for things she needed, as were very common except tabardie ball, cost very little money. When melted and brought before the king, went fine gold weighing a double. Seeing the king of something so cheap that drew a double gold, he was very happy and considered the happiest. So said the rogue, who had done this miracle, believed that an honest man. And asked to make more gold.

"The rascal, casually, she replied:

"Sir, as I have taught you everything I know of this miracle. Henceforth, ye may get gold like me, but it should have you know one thing: if you lack something that I said, you can not get gold.

Whereupon he took leave of the king and went home.

The king tried to make gold for himself and as doubled the recipe, got double gold worth two doubles, and, as the tripling and quadrupling, getting more and more gold. Seeing the king could get as much gold as he wanted, ordered them to bring you need to get a thousand gold doubloons. Her servants found all elements except the tabardie. When the king found that, lacking the tabardie could not make gold, he sent for the man who had taught, who said she could not get more gold. The rogue asked if he had mixed all the things you said in your recipe, answering the king, but had them all, lacked the tabardie.

"Then the rascal that if he lacked even one of the ingredients, I could not get gold, as he had warned from the beginning.

The king asked if he knew where to find the tabardie, and the rogue replied affirmatively. Then the king commanded him to go and buy it, knowing where they sold, and will bring a lot to do all the gold he wanted. The Trickster replied that, although another person could fulfill his charge as well or better than him, if the king required that he take charge, I would, because in their country was rich. Then calculate how much the king could ascend to travel expenses and tabardie, resulting in a large sum.

When the rogue took much money, they went away and never came back to the monarch, who was deceived by his lack of prudence. When she took a great deal, the king sent for him at home, to see if they knew where it was, but only found a locked chest, which, when they got open, they saw a letter to the king saying: "Be sure that tabardie is pure invention on mine I have cheated. When I said you could get rich, having responded to that first you ought to make me rich, then you would believe me. "

"After a few days, some men were laughing and joking, for which they wrote the names of all his acquaintances in separate lists in the brave, in another the rich, the wise one, grouping them by their strengths and weaknesses. Arriving at the names of those who were stupid, first write the name of the king who, hearing, sent by assuring them they would do them harm. When they reached the king asked why this had included the fools in the kingdom, to which they replied that having given so much wealth to a stranger who knew neither was his vassal. They said the king that they were wrong and that, if from the rogue who had stolen, he would not be among the foolish, to which the men responded that the number of fools would be the same, then erased the king and would put the mocker.

"And you, Sir Count, if you do not wish to have the fool, do not risk your fortune for something whose outcome is uncertain, because if the goods get more confident you lose, you have to repent for a lifetime.

The count was pleased much that advice, he followed and did very well.

And when Don Juan that this story was good, ordered him placed in this book and wrote a poem which read:

Never risk your adventures or wealth

p or advice of a man who lives in poverty.

Tale XXI

What happened to a young man with a philosopher king to whom his father had entrusted

Again, speaking Lucanor Patronio Count, your adviser, said:

"Patronio, I had a relative who loved, and his death left a very young child, who has grown up with me. For the gratitude and affection that his father always had, and also because I hope he will help me when its age is permittedGod knows I love him like a son. Although this boy is very intelligent and with time will be of the nobility, I would very much like his youth lead him to evil ways, as the inexperience of the young the tricks and not let them see what is best. For your good understanding, I pray you tell me how to get this young man always do what is best for your body and your finances, because I would not want it to be a victim of his own youth.

"Sir Count," said Patronio so that you can do for this young man what I think best for him, I want you to know what happened to a great philosopher with a young king, who had been educated.

The count asked what had happened.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, there was a king who had a son and entrusted it to a philosopher of his trust, to be educated with him. When the king died, the infant was still very smallño and remained educated by the philosopher until he was fifteen. But on entering the youth, the boy began to despise the teachings of the wise and follow the other directors that, as his pupils did not want nor have obligations to them, did not bother them away from evil. Following the young king that road, could very quickly see how their health and finances were ruined. Everybody criticized for losing their health and squandering their wealth. Since the situation was getting worse, the scholar who had brought great pain and sorrow felt, not knowing what to do after many attempts to correct it with prayers and supplications, and even harshly, without being able to change her life and that his youth prevented him from being more aware. Understanding the philosopher who had only one remedy to correct, as you shall hear it together.

He began the philosopher to say from time to time in court that he podía read the future in the flight and birdsong, without anyone in the world to excel. So many nobles listened to the fact reached the ears of the young king, who, when he heard, asked the sage if it was true that he played the songs of birds as well as stated in the palace. While the philosopher would deny it in principle at last admitted to be true, but advised him that nobody knew about it. Because young people are always eager to learn and do things, the king, who was young, I was eager to see how that philosopher interpreted omens, hence, the more I stretched the wise, the more he insisted the king, who managed to leave one day early in the morning with the philosopher to hear birds without anyone knowing.

That day got up early a lot. The philosopher king went to a valley where there were many barren and deserted villages, and after going through a lot, saw a squawking crow from a tree. The king showed it to the philosopher, who pretended to understand.

"Another also began to crow cawing in another tree and both were screaming, sometimes the right and the other the left. After listening a while, the wise philosopher began to mourn bitterly, to break their clothes and give a great show of grief. When the boy-king saw him thus, became very frightened and asked the philosopher why he did. The wise, however, wanted to hide the reasons, but both insisted that the young philosopher king replied that he would be more dead than alive, because not only men but also already knew that birds, their lack of prudence, lost land and wealth and all would make a mockery of its name. The young king asked him to explain. He said the crows learned that those two had agreed to marry their sons and the first speaker told the second that, as the marriage was arranged long ago, it was time to celebrate. The other contest jackdawor it was true that he had agreed, but now, thank God, she was richer than the other, because from this young king who ruled all the villages were abandoned in the valley, so she found many snakes, lizards, frogs and other animals that breed in abandoned places, and all they had more and better food, so this marriage was not between equals. The other crow, listening to her friend, burst out laughing and said he spoke without good sense if that is why he wanted to postpone the wedding, then, if God let this king live longer, it would be much richer because the valley where lived, which was ten times more villages would be abandoned, so no reason to postpone the wedding. And so then agreed to hold weddings.

"When the king heard this young man was very upset and began to think how he got his kingdom to such a state. Viewing philosopher sadness and concern of the king and I really wanted amended, gave very good advice, so that in a short time, the king changed his life thereby improving the kingdom and his own health.

"And you, Count, they have been nurtured in this youth and want to carry it on track, look for ways to make with good words and good examples to understand how to go about their business, but never think to insulting or punishment, thought so you can correct it, because such is the condition of young people who detest then haunts with the recommendations, especially a person of rank, then take it as an offense without realizing his error, since there is no better friend he who admonishes the young to seek not their own damage, but they do not understand well and taken for offended. If you Portais hard with him, born as much antipathy between the two will only bring harm on.

The count was pleased Patronio much this advice, and acted as he did very well.

And as Don Juan really liked this story, sent it to in this book and wrote the verses as follows:

Do not warn the young harshly,

show him the way frankly.

Story XXII

What happened to the lion and the bull

He spoke again Lucanor Patronio Count, your adviser, and said this:

"Patronio, I have a friend very powerful and very famous, which until now I have only received favors, but they tell me I lost not only its estimate but also, for reasons to come against me. So I have two main concerns: if you stand up against me, I can be very damaging, and if, moreover, found my suspicions and my departure, he will do likewise, so that our disagreements will grow and break our friendship . For the great confidence you have always deserved, I beg to advise me the most prudent for me in this matter.

"Sir Count," said Patronio so that you can spare you all that, I want you to know what happened to the lion and the bull.

The Count begged him to tell him.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, the lion and the bull and were good friends, as both are very strong and powerful, dominated and subjected to other animals as the lion, aided by the bull, reigned over all animals meat eaters, and the bull, with the help of the lion, he did about all they eat grass. If all the animals realized that the lion and the bull's dominated by the assistance provided to each other, and that this caused them serious harm, they talked among themselves to see how to end his tyranny. They saw that if they splintered the lion and the bull, could break the yoke of their rule, so the animals begged the fox and the sheep, who were deprived of the lion and bull respectively, seeking to break through their alliance. The fox and the sheep promised to do what they could to get it.

"The fox, the lion's adviser, called the bear, which is the strongest and most powerful animal of those who eat meat after the lion, to tell him this how the bull had long sought to do much damage, so, and although it was not true because they had told several days ago, should be cautious.

"So said the ram, director of the bull, the horse, which is the strongest animal among those who feed on grass after the bull.

"The Bear and the horse gave this warning the lion and the bull, which although not entirely believe him because they suspected some of those who were almost as strong as them, thinking they were looking for their discord, it did not fail to feel some mutual suspicion . Therefore, the two, lion and bull, spoke to the fox and the sheep, which were his private. They told their masters that perhaps the bear and the horse that they had been told to deceive, but nonetheless were advised to observe good words and deeds that henceforth do the lion and the bull, so that each works according to what he saw in the other.

Hearing this, increased suspicion between the lion and the bull, so that other animals, seeing that it began to be suspicious of one another, began to openly propagate their suspicions, which undoubtedly were due to poor intention that each guarded against the other.

"The fox and the sheep, who sought only as a convenience false counselors and had forgotten the loyalty they owed to their lords, instead of telling the truth, were misled. So often warned to each other that the friendship between the lion and the bull turned to mutual loathing, and the animals, to see them at odds, again and again asked their leaders to enter into our war, although they implied only looked after their interests, they sought their own, doing and getting all the damage fell upon the lion and the bull.

"Thus ended this fight: though the lion did more damage to the bull, decreasing much their power and authority, Left him so weakened that he never was able to exert their dominance over other animals of their species or on other different, or take them for themselves as before. Thus, as the lion and the bull did not understand that, thanks to his friendship and the support they lend to each other, were respected and feared by other animals, and because they failed to retain their alliance, ignoring the bad advice given them by those who wanted to shake off their yoke, and getting, instead, they were the lion and the bull the subject, these were so weakened that, if before they were lords and masters, then they were the downtrodden.

"And you, Sir Count, to prevent those who make you suspicious of your friend get you break with him, as did the animals with the lion and the bull. So I advise you, if that friend of yours is always loyal person and has helped you with good deeds, giving proof of their loyalty, and if you have with him the same confidence as a good son or a good brother, Do not believe anything they tell against him. On the contrary, you better tell him the criticism you make of it, with the assurance that you will have the that come from you, besides punishing those Urdan these lies so that others dare not bear false witness. But if this is a person who has your friendship only for a while, or necessity, or just casually, do not do or say anything that might lead you to think that you suspect him or that you can withdraw your favor, but conceal their errors , which in no way can do so much damage that you can not prevent a timely manner, as would be the recibiríais if you break your alliance by listening to bad advisers, as happened in the story. Also, Make him see that friend with good words how necessary is mutual and reciprocal collaboration for him and you well, and favors making and showing your willingness, not suspicious of him for no reason, not believing the envious and liars and showing that both you need their help as it yours, will the friendship between the two and none fall into the trap they fell the lion and the bull, which led them to lose all his dominion over other animals.

The count was very pleased with this advice from Patronio, wrought with his teachings and was very good.

And when Don Juan that the story was very good, ordered him to write this book and wrote a poem which read:

For these and works by some liars,

do not break your friendship with men helpful.


What they do to keep ants

Again speaking Lucanor Patronio Count, your adviser, as follows:

"Patronio, as everyone knows and thank God, I'm pretty rich. Some advised me that as I do, I forget the worries and devote myself to relax and enjoy good food and good wine, because I keep and what can still let my heirs rich. By your wisdom you please advise me what to do in this case.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, although the rest and pleasure are good, for you do in this most helpful, I'd really like you to know what they do to keep ants.

The earl asked him to tell him and Patronio said:

"Sir Count, you know what ants are tiny, and though their size might be thought not very smart, you will see how each year, harvesting and threshing time, they leave their nests and go to the beds, which are provisioned grain, which are then in their nests. When the first rains arrive, the ants were removed wheat, saying the people that make it so that the grain is dry, not realizing that they are wrong to say that, well do you know that when they get the ants grain for the first time the nest, it is because the rains and winter begins. If they had to to dry the grain every time it rains, would work as well as they could not expect the sun dry him since winter is hidden behind the clouds and does not heat anything.

"But the real reason to put to dry the grain the first time it rains is this: the ants stored in their barns as they may only once, and only worry that they are well stocked.

When they put the grain in their warehouses, they are deemed safe because they think live through the winter with these provisions. But with the coming of rain, as the grain is wet, it begins to germinate, the ants, seeing if it grows in the ant, the grain did not serve food but will cause serious damage and even death, taken out and eat the heart out of granite, which is where the leaves come out, leaving only the outside, it shall be food for the whole year, as much it rains and can not germinate or clog with roots and stems outputs ant.

He also will see that, even if they have enough provisions, whenever the weather is good take the field to collect small Hierbecita who find, if their reservations were not allowed to spend the winter. As you see, do not want to be lazy and waste the time of life that God gives you, because you can take advantage of it.

"And you, Count, if the ant, being so small, given such proofs of intelligence and has such a sense of anticipation, you must think there is no reason for anyone, and especially those with governance responsibilities and must ensure their large estates, want to live forever than it won, because for many the property will not last too long, spends every day and never recovers. Besides, it seems to be done for lack of courage and energy to continue fighting. I must therefore advise that if you want to relax and live a quiet life in mind, that ye your own dignity and honor, and by ensuring that you lack nothing necessary because, if you wish to be generous and have much to give, do not lack of opportunity in which to spend your greatest honor.

The count was pleased Patronio much this advice was given, acted under him and he was very helpful.

And as Don Juan liked the story, had him put into this book and wrote a poem which read:

Do not eat always won,

esu p honored not die in penury.

Story XXIV

What happened to a king who wanted to prove to her three children

One day he spoke Patronio Lucanor Count, your adviser, and said:

"Patronio, in my house we nurture and educate many young men, who are children of great lords or gentry, and in which I see very different qualities. By your good sense and as far as possible to you, I pray you tell me which of these young men will become complete men.

"Sir Count," replied Patronio, I say it is difficult to know with certainty, we can not know things to come and ask what is something futureAnd therefore we can not know with certainty, but what little of it is we can intuit certain features that appear in young people, both inside and out. So watch out that we face, good looks, color, body shape and the members are a reflection of the formation of major organs like the heart, brain or liver. Although signals can know nothing for them precisely because these seldom agree, because if a point a quality, others indicate the opposite, and yet things usually happen as evidence of these signals.

"The surest signs are the face and, above all, the look and the bearing, which seldom deceive us. Do not think that is called being a man looking handsome or ugly, because many men are beautiful and gentle and have no bearing of man, and others that seem ugly, have much grace and appeal.

"The shape of the body and members are all signs of the Constitutionion of man and tell us if it will be brave or cowardly, though, however, these signals do not reveal with certainty how will their works. As I say, are simple signals and it means you are not very safe, as the signal only makes us presume that may occur as well. In short, these are the outward signs, which remain very reliable in responding to what I ask. However, to meet the young men are much more indicative internal signals, and so I want you to know how a Moorish king proved his three children, to know who would occupy the throne to his death.

The count asked to do so.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, a Moorish king had three sons and as a parent can leave the throne to the son he wants, when he got old, the most illustrious men of his kingdom begged him to indicate which of his three children would succeed to the throne. The king replied that, after a month, would give the answer.

"After a few days, later said the king to his eldest son the next day at dawn, he wanted to ride and wanted to accompany him. That morning, the infant was greater than the king's chamber, but not as soon as his father had ordered. When he arrived, he told the king that wanted to dress and make him bring the clothes, the prince ordered the waiter to bring her, but the waiter asked him what the king wanted clothes. The prince turned to ask his father, who said she wanted the jubba, the prince turned and told the waiter that the king wanted the jubba. The waiter asked what would the King mantle, and the infant was returned by the monarch to ask. So with each garment, the infant back and forth with questions, until the king had prepared everything. Then came the waiter, who dressed and put on the monarch.

When the king was fully dressed and shoes, sent the child to make him bring a horse, and the child was told the groom, the latter asked which horse he wanted the king. The prince turned to ask his father, and so was the saddle, the bridle, a sword and spurs, that is, with all gear needed to ride, always asking the king what he wanted.

"When all was ready, the king told the prince he could not ride a horse, but it was him by the city and to fix it in all things he saw, so then the count.

"The prince rode in company with the most illustrious men of the court and with musicians playing drums, cymbals and all sorts of instruments. The infant took a walk around town and when he returned with the king, the latter asked what he thought of what he had seen the child replied that everything was fine, except the cymbals and drums, which made much noise.

"After some days the king ordered the second son to come to his house in the morning. The infant did. The king underwent the same tests as the elder brother, the second acted as his brother and said in the words of his brother.

And after a few days, the king ordered the younger son to come to him early. The infant madrugáor a lot and went to the king's, where he waited for the king woke up. When his father was ready, entered the royal chamber's youngest son, who knelt before his father as a sign of submission and respect. The king commanded to bring him clothes. The child asked her what she wanted to wear for clothing and footwear, and at one time was all over and brought it back, not wanting or allowing anyone to view but he, thus implied that he was proud that his father, the king, care and attention is seen only by him, it was his father and deserved much attention do could give.

When the king was already dressed and shoes, ordered the infant to do to bring your horse. The child was asked which horse he wanted, and everything you need to ride, as the chair, the brake and the sword, also asked who wanted to accompany him and how things might need. This done, at once brought him everything and ordered as the king had ordered.

"When everything was ready, the king said the infant did not want to go for a walk, it was him alone and tell him everything then see. The infant rode out accompanied by courtiers and gentlemen as they did his two brothers. None of them knew what the king intended to act like that.

"When the child came out, he commanded him to teach the inner city, the streets, the place that housed the royal treasury, mosques and all the monuments, and also asked how many people lived there. Then he went outside the gate and ordered him to accompany all armed men on foot and horseback, asking them to fight and he did a demonstration of his skill with weapons and how many years of attack and defense knowledge. Then check walls, towers and fortresses of the city and when he had seen it all, returned to his father the king.

He returned to the palace late at night. The king asked for things he had seen, answering the infant, with your permission, I would tell the truth. The king, his father ordered him to say it, on pain of losing his blessing. The infant responded that although he considered a good king, was less so, because if it had been, as he was as good soldiers and knights, so much power and so many blessings, and would have conquered the world.

"The king was much pleased with this heartfelt and sharp criticism it received from the infant, so that, upon reaching the deadline had been brought to his nobles, he said the younger son as heir.

The king, Count, served well by the signs he saw in each of their children, because although I would have preferred that to happen any of the other two do not elected judged successful and less for his prudence.

"And you, Count, if you know what youth is most valuable man, look at these things and then you can sense something even enough of what each will become.

The count was pleased much that Patronio told.

And as Don Juan thought it was a good story, ordered him placed in this book and wrote these verses as follows:

By word and deed but you know,

young lads in what will become.

Story XXV

What happened to the Count of Provence with Saladin, who was Sultan of Babylon

Count Lucanor Patronio spoke again with his counsel, as follows:

"Patronio, a vassal of mine told me the other day who wanted to marry a relative of hers, and that, as he was obliged to advise always the most prudent, I asked my advice as through what I thought best for him. He also told me who they are those who would marry his female relative. How I wish that this good man to do the best for his family and his relative, I pray you tell me what you think of this matter, since you know much about such things, so I can give good advice to go well.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, so that you can always advise those who have either gotten married to a relative of hers, I'd really like you to know what happened to the Count of Provence with Saladin, who was Sultan of Babylon.

Lucanor Count begged me to tell him what had happened.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, had a count in Provence that was very good and wanted to do good works to save his soul and win the glory of heaven with deeds that increase their honor and ennoble the name of their homeland. To achieve this, gathered a large army very well, and went to the Holy Land, thinking that whatever happened, you might feel happy, because it was to serve and honor God. But as the judgments of God are amazing and unfathomable, and test the Lord God with his chosen frequency, so that they suffer adversity with resignation, for he always does everything well and is in their benefit, and God did tempt Count Provence and allowed to fall prisoner of Sultan Saladin.

"While the count was living as a captive, Saladin, knowing His goodness, it was very well respected honors him and asked his advice on all important matters. So well advised both the count and he hoped the sultan that although he was imprisoned, had so much power and influence in the lands of Saladin as their own.

"When the Earl left his land, he left a very small child. So long was the Earl in prison, her daughter reached the age to marry, so the countess, his wife and her relatives wrote telling how many sons of kings and other nobles asked in marriage.

"One day, when Saladin was the count for advice, after having advised the Sultan on the subject he wanted, he spoke thus the count.

"Sir, you have given me so many blessings and honor, and both confide in me that I should think myself lucky I could do anything to reciprocate. And since you, sir, you have a well that I will advise on the most important benefit from your grace and trusting in your mind, I ask your advice on something happening to me.

"The Sultan was very grateful for these words of the count, answering very happy to advise you and even help you if necessary.

"Encouraged by this offer of the sultan, the earl told him about the marriage proposals she had received her daughter and asked her to say who should be chosen.

Saladin replied:

"" Count, I think you so smart, to say a few words, you can understand perfectly, you advise on this matter as I understand. As I know all those seeking the hand of your daughter, nor his lineage or power, or their personal belongings, or the distance between their lands and yours, or exceeding each other, I can not give advice too specific, so you just say that your daughter to wed a man.

The earl thanked him, for he knew very well what he meant.

Then he wrote to his wife and relatives, who addressed the board of the Sultan, and told them to find out how many gentlemen were in their land, what were their habits, qualities and virtues, without looking at their wealth or power, and, writing, he also told how they were the sons of kings and great lords and other nobles who lived there and she was asked in marriage.

The Countess and the Count's relatives were surprised by this response, but did as they were sent and wrote down the qualities and traditions, good and bad-of each of the suitors, as well as other circumstances that they knew they. Were also told how the gentry of those districts, and all they did get the count.

"Upon receipt of this letter count, showed it to the sultan, and Saladin reading it, although all the suitors were very good, found some defects in the children of kings or great lords, as both were gluttons and drunkards, others angry, others sullen, others proud, other friends of bad company, other stutterers and others, finally, had other defects. The sultan found, however, that the son of a wealthy man, who was the most powerful, so that the youth was said in the report, was the best man, the perfect compliment and few had heard in his life and consequently, the Sultan advised the Count to marry his daughter to the man, knowing that, while the others were more and more distinguished lineage that he would be better off married to this that none of those who had one or number of defects, since the Sultan thought the man was more than estimated by their works than by wealth or by the nobility of his lineage.

The earl sent word to the Countess and his relatives that his daughter marry the young man who had advised Saladin. And although much of it they were amazed, they call the son of that rich man and told him that the earl had said. The young man replied that he knew that the count was higher, richer and nobler than he, but that if he were as powerful as the Count, any woman could be happy married to him, saying that, if given this response for not agreeing to their claims, would be in search of a disgrace for no reason and it would make a great affront. They said to him I really wanted this marriage, and told how the Sultan had advised the Count to be given to the young man his daughter before any son of a king or great lords, because he was very man. Upon hearing this, the young man understood who consented to their marriage and thought that if Saladin had chosen to be real man, making him reach such a great honor, it would not behave unless under the circumstances.

'So asked the relatives of the count and countess who, if they believed that he then handed the county government and all his money, without saying anything he had imagined to do. They agreed to his claims and granted him the powers he wanted. He pushed a lot of money and with much secrecy, many armed galleys, pocketing a large sum. Done all this, set the date for the wedding.

"They held the wedding in luxury and splendor. At night, went to the house where his wife and, before consummating the marriage, called the countess and her relatives, who said a secret that they knew that the earl had preferred over other more noble because the Sultan advised him to marry his daughter to a man, and that since the Sultan and the count had given him so much honor and had chosen him for this reason, no real man would have him if he did what was required, for It told them he had to leave, leaving that maiden, who had taken in marriage, and county government, because he trusted God would guide him so that everyone could see that he had behaved like a man.

So saying, he mounted his horse and went to good fortune. He went to the kingdom of Armenia, where he lived a long time until he learned the language and customs of that land. There he learned that Saladin was very fond of hunting.

He picked up many good falconry birds and many good dogs and headed to where it was Saladin, dividing their ships and send one to each port, with orders not to leave until he wished.

"When the Sultan arrived, was very well received at court, but even kissed her hand and paid him homage, as it should be made to the master. The Sultan Saladin sent him all he needed and he was very grateful, but would not accept anything, saying he had not gone for help, but attracted by her fame, for which, if he wished, he would like to spend some time living with him to learn some of their prized virtues and qualities, and those of his people. Sultan also said that as he knew his love of hunting, he brought many good birds, dogs also very fast, which could choose the ones he liked, while he stayed with the rest to join him in hunting and serve in that financial year or any other.

"Saladin was very grateful for all this and grabbed what seemed right, but could not get the other to accept any gift or tell him anything about their occupations, or be linked to Saladin for any obligations of vassalage. Thus still living with us long.

"As God has things he wants and finally at will, would, in a hunt was launched after a crane hawks, which overtook on a port where landfall was one of the galleys that the son of Count had been circulated. The Sultan, who rode a very good horse, and his passenger walked away from both the rest of his people that no one could follow. When Saladin came to where the falcons were fighting with the crane, quickly fell from his horse to help. The son of the Earl, who came with him when they saw land, called the men of his galley. The Sultan, who was not fixed but in the battle of the Falcons, when he was surrounded by armed men, Was greatly astonished. The son of Count drew his sword and made as if attacked. Seeing him come Saladin against him began to lament, saying he committed a great betrayal. The son of the Earl answered that it should ask God for help because he knew that he had never been to their master, or had refused to accept anything from it or link that existed between them forced him to loyalty, but all Saladin was as ready.

"That said, caught him, took him to the galley and, when I was in, said he was the son of the Count, the same as the sultan had chosen to include better for being more man and, as he had chosen For this reason, no man would have, had it not done so. Then he asked him to return freedom to his father-in to see how the advice he had given was good and true, and how to give good results.

"When Saladin heard this, God gave thank you very much and was glad to have hit most of the advice he gave the count if it had happened a feat very honorable, however great this was. The Sultan said the son of the count which would put him immediately released.

"The son of the count, trusting the word of the Sultan, then pulled him out of his hat and went with him, ordering the men out of the hat to this far away from the port that no one could see them when I got there.

"The Sultan and the son of the Earl left the hawks preying on the cranes and when they came near them the Sultan's men, they found this very happy, but neither told what had happened between them.

"When they reached the town, the sultan stopped his horse before the house where the count was a prisoner, fell from his horse and, carrying the son of the Count, told him very happy:

"" Count, I thank God for allowing me to hit when you advised on the marriage of your daughter. Behold your son, because he brought you out of prison.

'Then he told how he had behaved in-law, prudence and effort that had proved to seize him and then they trusted his word.

"The Sultan, the Count and praised those who knew this much understanding, effort and loyalty of the son of Count and the virtues of Saladin, and the count gave thanks to God for having arranged everything so happily.

Then the sultan gave many rich gifts and the Count and his son, and gave the first, as compensation for their captivity, twice what they imported their county income while in prison, returning the count to his homeland very happy and very rich.

"All this took the count on the good advice he gave the sultan, to tell him his daughter to marry a real man.

"And you, Sir Count, then you must advise your vassal for you know who to marry his female relative, aconsejadle take care of your future husband is, above all, a real man, because if it is not, however rich, noble or distinguished he may be, shall never be well married. You must also know that the good man increases his honorGives credit to his line and increase their assets. Know also that, because of high descent and of great nobility, if man is not courageous and loyal, you can stay in that state. I could tell many stories of remarkable men whom their parents left rich and honored, that should not be as lost property and honor, but also had to be, more modest home or very illustrious ancestors, increased both their wealth and their honor with their effort and value that are considered for what they did and got by the nobility of his ancestry.

"You must know that both the pluses and minuses, born of the human condition itself, not its origin, however humble it may be. Therefore I say that the most important in marriage are the customs, intelligence and education with men and women. Know, finally, that the better and more profitable will be the marriage is the more distinguished lineage, greater wealth, more beautiful the bearing and the closer relationship between the two families.

The count was very pleased that these arguments Patronio him, and thought they were true.

And when Don Juan that this story was very good, had it written in this book and wrote the verses as follows:

The real man succeeds in everything to their advantage,

but he that is not always lose their rights.

Story XXVI

What happened to the tree of the Lie

One day he spoke Patronio Lucanor Count, your adviser, and said:

"Patronio, know that I am very sorry and continued fight with some men who do not like me and are so fakers and liars who always lie so both me and those who try. They say a lie so like the truth that if they find them very beneficial to me cause great harm, because they increase their power and raise the people against me. Just think, if I wanted to act like them, know do as well, but as the lie is bad, I've never made use of it. For your good understanding I beg to advise me how to act on these men.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, to do what is best and most beneficial, I'd love to tell you what happened to the Truth and Falsehood.

The count was asked to do so.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, Truth and Falsehood were to live together once, and after a while, Lie, which is very restless, suggested to the Truth to plant a tree to give them fruit and to enjoy its shade in the hottest days. The Truth, which has no fold and with little, accepted this proposal.

"When the tree was already planted and had begun to grow lush, Lie proposed to the Truth that is shared between the two, which pleased the Truth. Lies, arguments to make him understand very beautiful and well constructed that keeps the tree root, gives life and therefore is the best part and most profitable, Truth advised to stay with the roots, which live underground, While she was content with the twigs that were to go out and live above the earth, which would be a great danger because they would be at the mercy of men, that could cut or step, which also could make animals and birds. He also said that the great heat would dry them, and burned the great cold, on the contrary, the roots would not be exposed to these dangers.

On hearing the truth all these reasons, as is quite gullible, very confident and has no malice, she was persuaded by his partner Lies, believing to be true what he said. Because he thinks lie advised to take the best part, the truth was left with the root and was very happy with you. When the Lie finished his delivery, was overjoyed for having deceived his friend, thanks to its clever way of lying.

"The Truth went underground to live, for there were the roots which she had chosen, and lie remained above ground, with men and other living things. And lying is very flattering, quickly won the admiration of the people, because their tree began to grow and take great branches and leaves giving shade, also born in the tree very beautiful flowers of many colors and pleasant sight.

"Seeing people a beautiful tree, began meeting with him very happy, enjoying its shade and its flowers, which were very beautiful colors, and most people stayed there, and even recommending anyone outside the tree of the Lie by his joy, calm and cool shade.

"When they were all together under that tree, as the Lie is very wise and very flattering, gave them many pleasures and taught their science, they learned with pleasure. Thus won the confidence of almost everyone: a simple teaching them lies, to others more subtle, lies, double, and wiser, lies triples.

"Sir Count, you must know that is a lie simple when one says to another:" Don Fulano, I do this thing for you ", knowing it is false. Double lie is when a person makes solemn promises and vows, warranties, authorizing others to negotiate for him, and as such will give certainty, is thinking about how to commit deception. But the lie triple, very damaging, is the lying and cheating that telling the truth.

"Both knew this and Falsehood taught as well as those wishing to benefit from the shade of his tree, that men always ended his affairs cheating and lying, and could not find anyone who could not lie that she had not just being initiated at that false science. Partly because of the beauty of the tree and partly by the great wisdom Falsehood taught them, much people wanted to live under that shadow and learn what he could teach Falsehood.

"Thus the Lie was very honest and was highly regarded by the people, always looking for your company: at least approached it and fewer know their gear, everybody despised, and even he himself had in recently.

"While this was happening to the Lie, that he felt very happy, the sad and scorned truth was hidden under the earth, no one knew of it or wanted it to fetch. Seeing the Truth that he had to eat, but with the roots of the tree that lie advised to take as his own, and in the absence of other food, began to gnaw and cut for a living tree roots of the Lie. Although the tree branches had thick, very broad leaves which gave plenty of shade and bright colored flowers too, before he arrived to bear fruit all its roots were cut because they had to eat the Truth.

"When the roots disappeared, while the Lie in the shade of his tree with all the people who learned their tricks, the wind rose and shook the tree, which, having no roots, very easily fell down on the Lie, which struck and broke many bones, and their companions, who were killed or wounded. All then went very badly.

Then, by the vacuum left by the trunk, out the truth which was hidden, and when he reached the area saw the lie and all that attended were very battered and had received significant damage have gone the way of Falsehood.

"And you, Sir Count, look at that lying is very large branches and flowers, which are your words, thoughts or compliments are very nice and really like the people, albeit fleeting and never come to bear good fruit. Thus, while your enemies use of flattery and engadren of lies, shun it as pudiereis without ever imitating their trickery and without envy the fortune they have managed to lying, because they last long and certainly will not come to fruition. So when they are more confident, will happen as the tree of the Lie and who took shelter under it. Although many in our time the truth is despised, Embrace it and treat him in high esteem, for by it you will be happy, you will end well and you'll earn the forgiveness and the grace of God that will give prosperity in this world, you will very honest and will grant salvation to the other.

The count was pleased Patronio much this advice was given, followed his teachings and did well.

And when Don Juan that this story was very good, ordered him placed in this book and wrote a poem which read:

Avoid lies and embrace the truth,

damage gets his living in the wrong.


What happened to their wives to an emperor and Minaya Alvarfanez

Count One day he spoke with his counselor Lucanor Patronio and said:

"Patronio, I have two married brothers who live their marriage very differently, as one loves his wife he can barely get it removed one day and doing nothing but what she wants and even before, I query. On the other, however, tell you that nobody can get to see your wife or entering the house where he lives. As I am very concerned about the behavior of the two, I pray you tell me how to stop this extreme situation.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, so I say, your two brothers are mistaken, for neither one should show so much love to his wife or the other indifferently. Probably the error depends on the nature of their women and so would tell you what happened to the Emperor Frederick and Minaya Alvarfanez with their wives.

The count asked what had happened.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, I will tell you first what happened to Emperor Frederick, then what happened to Don Alvarfanez, because they are two different stories and not be mixed.

The Emperor Frederick married according to their rank, with a maiden of noble lineage, but was not happy, because before marriage was not aware of his temper. After marriage, and though she was good and honest character began to show more and more fractious rebel imaginable: if the emperor wanted to eat it fast, if the emperor wanted to sleep, she lifted and if the emperor took affection someone, she showed her dislike. What else do I say? The emperor liked, disliked it. In short, did everything the opposite of her husband.

The Emperor endured this life for some time, but seeing that ningNo way could correct his wife, or his warnings and those of others, nor threats nor prayers or praise, and also seeing the hard life that awaited him and the damage that he would bring his kingdom the poor condition The Empress, went to see the Pope, and told him what was happening and the danger they were his people and himself for the bad character of his wife the Empress. The emperor asked the pope if he could, to annul the marriage, though he knew it was impossible under the law of God, but neither could live together for the harsh nature of the Empress.

"As there was no choice, the Pope told the emperor entrusted the solution to your good understanding, because he could not give penance before sin.

The Emperor took leave of the pope, went home and tried to correct the Empress with flattery, threats, warnings and a few ways seemed good to him and all his people, and nothing would work, because the more you insisted that changed much more harsh and tasteless it was shown.

"When the Emperor saw that he could not alter the condition of his wife, he said one day he wanted to go hunting deer and would take a bit of grass that poisoned arrows to kill them, leaving the rest at home for another hunting. He also said that nothing in the world on those herbs put an itch, pustule or bleeding wound because the poison was so strong that there was no one to whom these herbs do not cause death. The emperor took another ointment very good and very effective for wounds and in front of it, applied it in those body parts that were not sound, and how many were there she saw that was immediately healed. He later told his wife in the presence of many courtiers and others, to be given of that ointment on any sore that I had. And with that, took the grass that needed to poison arrows and went to hunt deer.

"When the Emperor had departed, the Empress became angry and began to say:

"- See what you say now the false Emperor! Knowing that my itch is not like yours, tells me to apply the ointment has been given him, because then I will not be able to heal, but the other ointment, which is the best for me, tells me I should not give me . But for him though, I anoint him and come back, I find healthy. I'm sure nothing will bother you more, so I will.

The knights and ladies who accompanied begged and pleaded with tears in his eyes that does not do so and told him he had certainly die if he applied those herbs.

"Despite her pleas, he would not do: he took the herbs and turned them into the wounds. And soon will the first signs of death. If she could, she would have regretted what he had done, but he no longer had time. Thus died, because of their unruly and rebellious.

"But Don Alvarfanez opposite happened, so I'll tell you what happened.

It was a gentleman Don Alvarfanez very fair and very honest, founder of the town of Iscar, and one day went to the Count Don Pedro Ansúrez, who lived with their three daughters Cuellar. After eating, he asked the count Alvarfanez what caused the surprise and pleasure of your visit. Alvarfanez replied that he had come to ask one of his daughters in marriage, but I wanted to talk to them, study them and pick the one you liked. Seeing the count that God favored him with this marriage, said he would be happy that everything was done well.

Don Alvarfanez was alone with the eldest daughter and told her that if she accepted, she would marry her, but first must know some very important things about his life. First, he was no longer young and that the many injuries sustained in the battles they had fought, his head was so weak that, for very little wine to drinkHe lost the trial and became so violent that he knew what he was saying, having gone so far to beat some people with such fury that, when she did, he regretted having done so. You should also know that when I was asleep, he could not control his needs in bed. And so much how are you told that no woman, although not very smart, he might be well married to him.

"When I heard this, the count's daughter told him that the marriage did not depend on her but her parents. After Don left Alvarfanez and returned to his father. This and his mother asked what he wanted to do and, as the daughter misunderstood the test with her by Don Alvarfanez, he answered that he preferred death to marry him for the things he had said.

The count and refused to refer to Don Alvarfanez but replied that his daughter still wanted to marry.

Don Alvarfanez spoke after that, with the middle daughter. And it came to her as the oldest. Then he spoke to the third, which said the same things as her sisters.

She replied to Don Alvarfanez that he thanked God for this marriage, also said that if the wine did not suit him, she would cover the people and no one would notice, and also told him that although he felt old , why not give up the joy and the honor of being his wife and what he said about his bad temper and his punches people, he said not to worry because she would not give ground and if any once mistreated, would lead to resignation.

"And all the things you don Alvarfanez said he knew how to respond so well that the gentleman was very happy and thanked God for having found a woman so smart. Then he said to Count Don Pedro, who wanted to marry the youngest of her daughters. The count was pleased much that marriage and the wedding celebrated soon. Then Don Alvarfanez land left for his wife, whose name was Dona Vascunana.

"At Alvarfanez house, she was so good and so clever wife that her husband was judged by well-married and ordered everyone to do as she commanded. This he did it for two reasons: first, because God had made so good, so loving her husband and so respectful of their decisions, as he did and said Don Alvarfanez, it seemed to her that was really the right thing and liked it so much as her husband did and said that otherwise never something that was to his liking. Do not think he did this for flatter or cajole, but because they truly believed and felt that everything that Don Alvarfanez wanted, did or said could not be improved nor implied any errors. First this, and secondly because she always showed such good sense and made decisions so successful, loved and honored Don Alvarfanez who let himself be guided by its recommendations, he always sought his advice and what furthered the honor and profit the Count, her husband. I never asked her husband to do something to please her, but only that it was convenient and helpful as a gentleman.

"It happened that once, when at home Don Alvarfanez, visited his nephew, who lived in the palace with the king, and his visit he was very pleased. After a few days, said her nephew who was a person of good condition, but it was a defect. Alvarfanez Don asked about. The nephew replied that his only fault was to much attention to his wife and give her the care of all your real estate. Alvarfanez Don said there a few days would give an appropriate response.

And without a word of this conversation to his wife, departed on horseback Alvarfanez to other lands and remained there several days, accompanied by his nephew. Then he had come to Dona Vascunana, leaving her husband to meet her halfway, but not talked to each other nor had time to do so.

"Alvarfanez and his nephew were in front and behind Dona Vascunana. They were riding well and after a while, and his nephew Alvarfanez saw lots of cows. He said Don Alvarfanez:

"- Did you see, my boy, what is so beautiful mares in this country?

Hearing this, his nephew was shocked and thought that his uncle was saying in jest, however, asked him why he said that although there were mares saw were cows.

Then Alvarfanez lot and was amazed at his nephew said he thought he had lost his mind, he was very clear that these were mares.

When the nephew saw his uncle was famous again and again, in all seriousness, was terrified and thought that surely had gone mad.

"Don Alvarfanez continued to maintain its claims, until he reached Dona Vascunana, who came after them. Seeing her, Don Alvarfanez told his nephew:

"" Look, my nephew, my wife is around, that will settle this discussion.

"The nephew seemed that very well, so that on reaching his aunt, said:

"Madam, my uncle and I are arguing, as he says that these cows are mares, but I say they are cows, and both have stubborn that he takes me crazy, but I think he has lost his mind. Please, gentlemen, who tells the truth.

When Donna heard this Vascunana his nephew, though she also seemed cows, thought that if her husband said they were mares, I could be wrong and therefore had to be mares, although all famous otherwise. So he said to his nephew and all present:

"- My God, my boy, how I feel what you say! But you expected, how long have you lived in the palace, more sanity and common sense, because you show a lack of trial and even sight if you confound mares cows.

Then Dona Vascunana he began to show that the shape, color and many details were not cows and maresAnd that his uncle could not be wrong either in word or thought, and thus it was true what he said. Both she assured him that his nephew and present began to think they were the ones confused and that cows were mares, he said Don Alvarfanez. Occurred, nephew and uncle followed road ahead and saw lots of mares. Then said Don Alvarfanez to his nephew:

"- Ah, cousin! These are the cows and not that you were saying before, they were mares.

"When I heard the nephew said his uncle:

"- God, man! If you you are right, the devil has brought me to this land to me, because if you really are cows, I will have lost his mind, as these mares would be anywhere in the world.

And Don Alvarfanez began insisting that they were cows. They stayed until he reached Dona Vascunana, which told him that claimed her husband and nephew. While she thinkswherein the nephew was right, at any time thought her husband was wrong or it might be true to something else he said. Thus began looking for arguments to show that it was true what her famous husband, and found so many and so conclusive that his nephew and those who were there thought his reason and his eyes made them confused and that was right gift Alvarfanez . It happened this time.

"Uncle and nephew walked up to a river where there were many mills. While the horses drank, started to say Don Alvarfanez that the waters of that river ran to his birth and those receiving water mills in the opposite direction.

"Alvarfanez's nephew was taken for a madman when he heard him say this, because he thought that, if it had been confused with the cows and mares, so now would be to think that the river flowed in the opposite direction to that decía his uncle. They stayed until he reached Dona bickering Vascunana. When I told the uncle and nephew discussion held, although she found true the view of the nephew, it was carried away from his own trial and thought it was true what her husband said. And he looked so many good reasons to support him with his nephew and all the companions believed that this was the only truth.

And from that day was like saying that if the husband says that the river ran upstream, so the good wife should believe and say that's true.

When the nephew saw the arguments of Ms Vascunana demonstrated the veracity of what he said Alvarfanez gift and that he was wrong not to distinguish one thing from another, felt sorry for himself and thought he had lost his mind.

"After walking along the road stretch, seeing Don Alvarfanez his nephew very worried and very sad, said to him:

"Nephew, I have already responded to what you told me the other day about what they saw as a flaw in me, ever do if my wife, rest assured that, as has happened today, I've prepared for that vieseis how she is and I do well if I get carried away by his advice. I must also say that for me the first cows we saw, of which I said we were mares, cows were defendíais like you, and when I arrived and Dona Vascunana heard that for me were mares, I'm sure she thought you you said the truth, but as is so confident in my rectum trial and I think you'll never be confused, you thought she and you were the wrong ones. And therefore sought conclusive arguments as you and I convinced everyone present that I was right, that same thing happened with the mares and the mill. I assure you that since our wedding day, never saw her do or say something for its own benefit or pleasure, but only what I chooseNor has upset so I never did. And to her, anything I choose, it is always best, besides, how much to do for your state, or because I ask him, he does very well, always looking for my honor and profit and wanting, so , everyone knows that I am the Lord and as such must be obeyed and honored, not wish for it or fame or reward for what he does, but everyone knows what I can do and my appreciation for everything she does. I think if a Moor from across the sea hiciese this for me, I should love, estimate and follow his advice, much more will the woman I'm married. And now, my boy, I have responded to the criticism that I did the other day.

"The nephew Alvarfanez these reasons convinced him and realized that if Mrs. Vascunana was so good sense and goodwill, while his uncle was loving and trusting it and doing it as she did.

"As you see, were very different women of the Emperor and the Alvarfanez.

"Sir Count, if your brothers are so different that one does what his wife wants and the other does not take into consideration, it is because their women wear the same life that led the Empress and Dona Vascunana. If their wives are like that, you should not be surprised or blame your brothers, but if they are neither as good nor as rebels and the two that I have spoken, your brothers will have some blame, because even though that brother of yours, that much love to his wife, is right to want it, we think that such estimates must be limited to its proper terms and no more. For if a man wants to be beside his wife and therefore cease to go to the sites or topics that suit you, you must think he's wrong, think also that, to please or satisfy the husband does not fulfill what belongs to your class or your honor, is also very wrong. But excepting these things, how much honor, esteem and confidence show the husband to his wife, and as you are allowedI shall treat it. I will add that the husband on matters of little importance, it must avoid trouble or setbacks to his wife and, above all, must not lead to sin because of him many evils arise: first, by the very evil of sin, and second because for desenojarla and please her husband will do things harmful to their reputation and finances. But his bad luck that possesses one woman as rebellious as the Empress, because at the beginning did not or could not remedy, it has no other solution but to bear his misfortune as God wills. But know that to avoid one and achieve the other, the husband, from the first day of marriage, should ask to see his wife that he is the Lord and how she should behave.

"I think you, Count, following these discussions," you can advise how your brethren have to behave with their wives.

The count was greatly pleased Patronio what he said because he thought it was true and very reasonable.

Like Don Juan felt these two stories were very good, ordered placed on the book and wrote the verses as follows:

Since the beginning should teach man

how his wife was deported.


What happened to Lorenzo Suarez Gallinato

One day, he spoke Patronio Lucanor Count, your adviser, as follows:

"Patronio, a man wants to get under my wing, and though I know it's a good person by nature, some say he has committed various breaches. As I know your good sense, I beg to advise me what to do in this case.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, to do what most sensible, I'd like you to know what happened to Lorenzo Suarez Gallinato.

The count asked what had happened.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, Lorenzo Suarez Gallinato served under the Moorish king of Granada and when he returned to serve the king of Castile, Don Fernando, the latter said that as he had so offended God by helping Moors against the Christians, Our Lord never would have mercy on him and that at death, would lose its soul.

Don Lorenzo Suarez responded to the king that he had no reason to expect mercy from God, except that of having killed a misacantano.

"As the king seemed a very strange response, asked for more details.

Don Lawrence said that, while living with the king of Granada, enjoyed his trust and was a member of his bodyguard. Going one day with the king, heard much noise from people who were shouting and screaming, to escort the king, he spurred his horse and went to see what happened, encontrANDOS coated with a cleric's vestments. He was a priest who had renounced Christianity and embraced Islam and, to please the Moors, had proposed handing the God in whom Christians believe, when they worship the only true God. For this, the sacrilegious priest provided the necessary ornaments, made an altar, he celebrated Mass and blessed a wafer that delivered to the Moors, these began to mock her, had dragged through the mud and ran well throughout the villa .

"When Don Lorenzo Suarez saw this, although he lived with the Moors, he remembered he was a Christian and, as he believed that this was indeed the body of God, whose son Jesus Christ died to redeem us from our sins, he thought he would be blessed if he died to avenge the insult and sacrilege. So full of rage and anger, was launched against the renegade who had done such a crime and cut his head. Then he dismountedor, both knees knelt on the ground and worshiped the body of Christ, which the Moors had dragged. As he knelt, the host, he was a little away from him, sprang from the mud and fell into the lap of Lorenzo Suarez. Seeing this, all the Moors were enraged, seized their swords and sticks and stones went up to him to kill him. Don Lorenzo took his sword, the same as he used to decapitate the false priest, and began to fight back.

The king, hearing the noise and see how they wanted to kill Lorenzo Suarez ordered attacked anyone before knowing what happened. The Moors, who were very offended, told him what had happened to Don Lorenzo and the renegade cleric.

The king, very angry and with great violence, Lorenzo asked why he had done so. This told him that knew that he was a Moor, but nevertheless he had entrusted the protection of his body because he considered him a very loyal man, And that he, for fear of death, it would still protect him, also told him that if he judged so loyal that he thought she would defend to the death, though the king was a Moor, he should consider what would be willing to do, as a Christian he was, to save the body of the Lord who is king of kings and Lord of lords, and if by doing so, they killed him, would feel very happy.

"On hearing this, the king was very glad that Mr. Lorenzo said, and what he had done, and thereafter he showed even greater appreciation and deep admiration.

"And you, Count, if you know that this man who seeks your protection is good and you can trust him, but you say he made some mistakes, you must not keep him away from you, because sometimes what people think is not bad , as happened to King Ferdinand when he thought that Mr. Lorenzo had committed the greatest crime in the world, killing a priest. But, as you see, Lorenzo served very honorably do their duty. However, if you knew that what he did was wrong and that he did so without reason, but now be sorry, you will do well to reject your side.

The count was greatly pleased that he told Patronio, followed his advice and did well.

And when Don Juan that the story was good, ordered him placed in this book and added a few verses as:

A lthough many things appear without reason,

looks more closely, they truly are!

Story XXIX

What happened to a fox that lay on the street and made the dead

Speaking another day Lucanor Patronio Count, your adviser, said this:

"Patronio, a relative of mine lives in a place where you make frequent assaults, he can not stop for lack of power, and nobles from there would want him to do something that will serve as an excuse to get together against him. My relatives find it very painful to suffer many indignities you do and are willing to risk everything rather than continue living that way. Because I want them to do what is best, I pray you tell me what I advise you to live as best you can in those lands.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, so that you can advise him what to do, I want you to know what happened to a fox who became the dead.

The count asked what had happened that.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, a fox came a night in a pen where he had chickens and eat them both amused himself that when he decided to leave, it was daylight and people were on the streets. When he found he could not hide, went quietly into the street and sat on the floor as if dead. Seeing it, people thought it was and no one listened.

"After a while a man came by who said the hair of the head of the fox were good to avoid the evil eye on the children and therefore she sheared with scissors the hair on the forehead.

"Then came another, who said that hairs on the back, then another, who cut off those of the flank and cut his hair so much that they left shaven. Nevertheless, the fox did not move, because he thought he lost his hair was not very severe damage.

"Then came another man, who said the thumbnail of the fox was very good for tumors, and took it off. The fox did not move.

"Then came another, and said that bitch's teeth were good for toothache. He took one, and the fox did not move this time.

"Finally, after a while, came one who said that the heart of the fox was good for heart pain, and reached for his knife to remove it. Seeing the fox who wanted to take away the heart, and if not removed it was something I could do without, and therefore die, thought it better to risk everything rather than lose his life indeed. And so he struggled to escape and saved his life.

"And you, Count, advise your relative that implies that not care about these offenses and tolerates, if God put him in a land where you can not avoid nor avenge accordingly, while those offenses and the offenses could endure without great danot for him and without loss of honor for when you do not have offended, but you insult, will not feel humiliated. But as others know that you feel humiliated, if not henceforth be doing everything to regain his honor, will be increasingly outraged and offended. And so it is better to endure minor offenses because they can not be avoided, but if offenders commit offenses or offenses to honor, will need to risk everything and not bear such insults, it is better to die in defense of the honor or rights of their state, rather than live enduring indignities and humiliations.

The Count thought that this was good advice.

And Don Juan had him put into this book and wrote these verses as follows:

Supports things while you could,

and vengeful only when you should.

XXX Story

What happened to King Abenabet of Seville Romaiquía, his wife

One day he spoke Patronio Lucanor Count, your adviser, as follows:

"Patronio, look what happens to me with a man often asks me to help and succor him with some money, though, every time so I do, I get samples of appreciation when he asks me if it is not happy with whatever I give him, he gets angry, discontented shows and seems to have forgotten how many favors I have done before. Since I know of your good opinion, I beg to advise me how to behave with him.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, I think you are going on with this man what happened to the king Abenabet of Seville Romaiquía, his wife.

The count asked what had happened.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, Abenabet King Romaiquía was married and loved her more than anyone in the world. She was very good and the Moors still remember his words and deeds by individuals, but was defective, and that it was sometimes capricious and whimsical.

It happened one day, while in Cordoba in the month of February, snow fell and when Romaiquía saw the snow began to mourn. The king asked him why he wept, and she replied that he never let her go places where snowing. The king, to please her, since Cordoba is a warm country and there is rarely snow, ordered to plant almond trees across the Sierra de Cordoba, so that, when flowering in February, seem covered with snow and queen saw his wish fulfilled.

And again, being Romaiquía in their rooms, overlooking the river, he saw a woman, barefoot in the Glera, stirred the mud to make adobe bricks. And when the queen saw it, began to mourn. The king asked the reason for her tears, and she replied that she could never do what he wanted, or even what the humble woman. The king, to please her, sent rosewater fill a large lake in Cordoba, then ordered him to be emptied of soil and fill with sugar, cinnamon, lavender, clove, musk, amber and musk, and spices give off few good odors. Finally, boot ordered the straw, which make the bricks, and planting sugar cane there. When the lake was full of these things and the mud was so you can imagine, the king said to his wife that he stepped barefoot and mud and will make few adobes liked him.

"Again, because one thing struck him, began to mourn Romaiquía. The king asked him why he was crying and she told him that how he would not mourn if he never did anything to please. The good king, seeing that she disliked so much as he had done to please and not knowing what else could do, he said these words in Arabic: "Wa the mahar attention? 'Which means:" Even the day of mud? 'to signify that if he had forgotten to many quirks in which he had pleased, the mud should always remember that he had ordered prepared to please her.

And so to you, Count, if that man does not forget and grateful for it as you did, simply because you did not as he wanted, I advise you do nothing for him to harm you. And I advise you, if someone do for you something that you favor, but then does everything you wanted, why not forget the good they have done.

The count he thought this good advice, followed it and did very well.

And when Don Juan that this was a good story, sent it to in this book and wrote the verses, which read:

For those who do not grateful for your favors,

never leaves your work.

Story XXXI

What happened between the clergy and the Franciscans in Paris

Another day he spoke Patronio Lucanor Count, his counselor and said:

"Patronio, a friend of mine and I would like to do something very useful and of great honor for both, I could do it now, but I dare him to come. For the good understanding that God gave you, I ask your advice on this matter.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, to do what I find most helpful, I would tell you what happened to the canons and the Franciscan friars in Paris.

The earl asked him to count it.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, the canons say that as they were head of the Church, were to play the hours before anyone else. The monks claimed, meanwhile, that they should study, rising to matins and could not lose hours of study. They argued further that, to be exempt from obedience to the bishop, did not have to wait for anyone.

"The lawsuit continued longer and cost much money to both parties, by lawyers and by taking the matter to Rome. At last, a new pope undertook a cardinal and it ordered the lawsuit to fail immediately.

The cardinal had him turn over the contents of the process that was so great to see it was fear. When the cardinal was in front all the records, citing both parties to come to hear the sentence, and when, people the parties were before the court, the cardinal ordered the destruction of all the papers and said this:

'Friends, this suit has lasted long, you have a lot of money spent on it and I have done much harm, as I do not want to delay, ruled that he wakes up before, Tana before.

And you, Sir Count, if the thing is convenient for both, and you only can do, I advise that ye without delay as often lose good companies to defer and then when we would make them no longer possible.

With this history, the lord was well advised, he did so and came out very well.

And when Don Juan that this story was good, had him put into this book and wrote these verses, which read:

If something very useful you can do

do not let you eventually lose.


What happened to a king with the mockers who made the cloth

Another time he told Count Patronio Lucanor your counselor:

"Patronio, a man has offered me a very important issue, which will be very useful for me but asked me not knowing anyone, for I have much confidence in it and urged me so much secrecy that states that I may lose my finances and my life, if I discover someone. Since I know that none of your clear understanding you propose something that was misleading or mockery, I pray you tell me your opinion on this matter.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, that ye may know what more I should do in this business, I would tell you what happened to a Moorish king with three mischievous rascals who came to the palace.

And the earl asked him what had happened.

"Sir Count," said Patronio three rogues were at the palace and told the king that they were excellent weavers, and told how his greatest skill was to make a cloth that could only see those who were children of all believed her father, but that such material could never be seen by those who were not sons of his father who passed.

"This seemed very well to the king, for in that environment would know who they were true sons of their parents and who is not so, so, keep it with their goods, because the Moors not inherit from their parents if they are truly their children. With this intention, ordered them to give a large room that would make this material.

"Rogues asked the king to command them locked in that room until they finished their work and, thus, would be that there was deception as proposed. This also greatly pleased the king, who gave them gold, and silver, and silk, and whatever was necessary to weave the fabric. And then were locked in that room.

"They set up their looms and pretended to be many hours knitting. After several days, was one of them to tell the king that the material had already begun and it was very beautiful, also explained how the figures and work were doing and asked him to come to see him alone, unaccompanied by any counselor. The king was much pleased with this.

The king, to test before another person, he sent his servant, without asking him to tell the truth. When the server weavers saw and heard them discuss among themselves the merits of the material, did not dare say not seen. And so, when he returned to the palace, the king said he had seen. The king then another server, which also afam have seen the material.

"When all the envoys of the king claimed to have seen the cloth, the king went to see him. He entered the room and saw the false weavers do as if they worked, as he said, 'See this work. Can you place this story? Look at the picture and appreciate the variety of colors. " And although all three agreed on what they said, the truth is that no one had woven cloth. When the king saw that what he was weaving and cloth, that others had seen, he was dead, thinking that he could not see because he was the son of the king, his father, and therefore could not see the cloth, and feared that if he said it would lose the kingdom. Forced by this fear, highly commended the material very well and learned all the details that the weavers had been shown. When he returned to the palace, said to his courtiers and the excellent workmanship of this material and explained the pictures and stories that was in it, but I hid all his suspicions.

"A few days later, and he saw the material, the king sent his governor, had told the virtues and wonders who had the cloth. The governor arrived and saw the rogues weaving and explain the figures and work that had the material, but as he did not see them, and remember that the king had seen, judged not to be the son of his father who believed and thought that if anyone knew, lost honor and fees. With this fear, highly commended the material, even more than the king himself.

"When the governor told the king that he had seen the material and praised him all the details and excellence, the king was very unhappy, because now she was sure that was not the son of the king who had succeeded to the throne. For this reason, began to praise the quality and beauty of the material and the skill of those who had woven.

The next day the king sent his favorite, and the same thing happened. What else do I say? In this way, and fear of disgrace, were deceived the king and all his subjects, for none dared say that he saw the cloth.

"This continued the matter until they reached the main festival and asked the king to clothe those rags for the occasion. The three rogues brought the cloth wrapped in a linen sheet, made as if the unwrapping and then the king asked what kind of garment desired. The king said the dress she wanted. They were measured and then were cut off as if they were fabric and sewing.

"When the day of the festival, the weavers was brought to the king the fabric cut and sewn into believing that he was dressed and smoothed the folds. When finished, the king thought he was dressed, not daring to say that he did not see the cloth.

And dressed in this way, ie, totally naked, rode on horseback to explore the city, luckily, it was summer and the king did not suffer from the cold.

"All they saw naked people, they knew that he would not see the fabric was not the son of his father, believing each that although he did not see it, the others did, for fear of losing honor, remained quiet and none dared to discover that secret. But a black man, groom of the king, who had no honor to lose, approached the king and said: "Sir, I do not care that you may have me by my father's son or any other, and that's why I say either I'm blind, or going naked. "

The king began to insult him, saying, as he was no son of his father, could not see the cloth.

"In saying that the black, one who heard him said the same, and they were saying until the king and all others lost their fear to admit that was true, and understand the deception that rogues had been made. And when they went to look, not found, because they had gone with what the king had been cheated through this deception.

"So, you, Sir Count, like the man asks you for your trust anyone know what I proposed, be sure you plan to deceive you, because you must understand that he has no reason to search your advantage, as they hardly know you , while those who have lived with you, always endeavor to serve and promote.

The Count thought that was good advice, followed it and did very well.

Displaying Don Juan that this story was good, ordered him to write this book and wrote these verses as follows:

Who advises you cover up your friend s

his favorite trick that figs.


What happened to a saker falcon to the Infante Don Manuel with a heron and an eagle

He spoke again Lucanor Patronio Count, your adviser, as follows:

"Patronio, I often happened to be at war with other men and, when the war is over, advise some rest and live in peace, and others, to engage in further battles against the Moors. Since I know no one can advise me better than you, I pray you tell me what to do at this juncture.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, so that in this case more convenient to do what I would really like you to know what happened to some hunters, herons and hawks, in particular, what happened to a saker falcon Infante Don Manuel.

The earl asked him to count it.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, the Infante Don Manuel was a day of hunting near steps and launched a saker falcon against a heron, rising behind the hawk heron, an eagle was launched against him. The hawk, for fear of the eagle, the heron left and began to flee the eagle, seeing that he could not reach it, withdrew. When the eagle is removed, the hawk turned to the heron and tried to catch her and kill her. Being very close to the falcon and the heron, the eagle was released back against the hawks, who fled as before. He left again the eagle and the hawk flew back to the heron. This happened three or four times, provided that the eagle was, the hawk turned to the heron, but when the hawk was approaching the heron, the eagle reappeared to kill him.

"Seeing that the eagle hawk not allowía kill the heron, left, and the eagle flew over and attacked many times and with such success, wounding always, that made her flee. After this, the falcon and the heron again, when they flew too high, the eagle returned again to attack. When he saw the hawk that he had done it did not help anything, again the eagle fly over and fell on it with nails and claws, and with such force that it broke a wing. Seeing her fall, with a broken wing, turned against the heron hawk and killed it. It worked well because I thought that I should not leave his game, having got rid of the eagle, which prevented him.

"And you, Sir Count, because you know that your game, and honor and all your good, both for the body to the soul, is to serve God, and know also that, according to your state, as can best serve God is fighting against the Moors, to celebrate the holy faith catOlic, I advise you, when you're free of other attacks emprendáis fighting the Moors. Will succeed in so many advantages, it also will worship God and will fulfill the obligations of your estate, increasing your honor and not eating the bread of idleness, which does not correspond to any honorable gentleman, as the gentlemen, when they are idle, do not appreciate as due to others or do whatever they like gentlemen should do, but things and engage in improper diversions of his noble status. As the Lord is good and always helpful to have some obligation, rest assured that, in many occupations exist, none are as good, nor so honest nor so profitable for body and soul, like fighting the Moors. Remember why the third story this book, the jump that gave King Richard of England and what it achieved with having given; also think that you will die in your life and you have committed many offenses against God, Which is very fair, so you can not avoid the punishment your sins deserve. But look, if you can, to find a way for your sins are forgiven by God because, if you find death fighting against the Moors, having done penance, you shall be a martyr for the faith and you will be among the blessed, and but do not die in battle, good works and your good intention will save you.

The count considered this advice as very good, promised to implement it and asked God to help him to fulfill his will always.

And when Don Juan that this story was good, ordered him to write this book, and wrote these verses as follows:

If God granted safety deep,

try to earn you happy forever.


What happened to the blind leading to another

On this occasion spoke Patronio Lucanor Count, your adviser, as follows:

"Patronio, a relative of mine whom I trust completely and love which I am sure you advise me to go somewhere that gives me some concern. My relative insists and tells me I should not have any fear, because before he would lose my life that consent damage. So, I beg to advise me what to do.

"Sir Count," said Patronio to properly advise you knew I would very much like what happened to a blind man with another.

And the earl asked him what had happened.

"Sir Count," continued Patronio, a man lived in a city, lost his sight and became blind. And being so poor and blind, visited the blind who lived in the same city, and offered to go either to another nearby village, where would they would ask for alms and how to feed and sustain themselves.

"The first blind man told him that the way to that city had wells, deep gorges and mountain passes difficult, and therefore feared to make that journey.

"The blind man said he disposed of that fear, because he would accompany him walk so sure. Both insisted and told him so many advantages of change, the first blind man who believed and left them.

"When they reached the steep and dangerous places, fell into a ravine, the blind, as a connoisseur of the road, led to another and also dropped the blind who suspected the dangers of travel.

"And you, Count, if rightly feel suspicious and adventure is dangerous, Do not run any risk despite what he asks you your good kinsman, though he tells you he will die before you, because I will be of little use his death if you also the same risk you run and you can die.

The earl thought it was this good advice, and acted as he took advantage of it.

And when Don Juan that the story was good, ordered him put into this book and wrote a poem which read:

Never get involved where they risk

even if you attend a real friend.

Story XXXV

What happened to a young man who married a very rebellious girl

Again speaking Lucanor Patronio Count, your adviser, and said:

"Patronio, a relative of mine told me that I want to marry a rich woman and more famous than him, so this wedding would be very helpful if it were not, as he told some friends, this is a maiden very violent and angry. Therefore I pray you tell me if I advise him to marry her, knowing how, or if I advise you not to do.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, if your relative has the character of a young man whose father was an honest Moor aconsejadle to marry her, but if not, do not aconsejéis.

The count asked me to tell him what happened.

Patronio said that in a city there lived a father and son, who was an excellent person, but not so rich that he could make as many projects to succeed. So the young man was always very worried, for being so enterprising had no means or money.

In that same town there lived another man more distinguished and wealthier than the first, he had only one daughter, a very different character to the youth, as soon as it was good, what was wrong with her, so nobody the world would want to marry this woman devil.

That young man was as good a day to his father and told him that, because it was so rich that could give him everything he needed to live, would need to pass the misery and poverty or to leave, so if he was their consent, it seemed wiser to look for a proper marriage, with whom she could find a way to carry out their projects. The father answered that he would love to find him an advantageous marriage.

Said the boy to his father that if he wanted, I could try that this good man, whose daughter was so bad, is to give her in marriage. The father, hearing his son say that he was astonished and asked how much had thought that because there was nobody in the world who knew that, even if very poor, I would marry her. The son replied that he should make his behalf to arrange the marriage. Both insisted that although his father seemed very strange, he said he would.

He went home after that good man, which was a close friend, and told him what he had spoken to his son, saying that as the youth was ready to marry his daughter to consent to their marriage. When the good man and heard his friend replied:

"By God, man, if I authorize this wedding would be your worst friend, for the case of your son, who is very good, I would think he was serious damage to consent to injury or death, because I'm sure that if home with my daughter, die, or his life with her will be worse than death. But do not think I say this not to accept your request, then, if you want a wife of your son, I contented myself much to give it to him or anyone who takes her away from this house.

His friend replied that he thanked him very much for your warning, but as his son insisted on marrying her, he turned to ask his consent.

Held the wedding, the bride brought to her husband and, as they were Moors, after their custom dinner prepared for them, they set the table and left alone until the next morning. But parents and relatives of the groom and bride were very scared, they thought that tomorrow would find the boy dead or badly wounded.

When the bride and groom stay at home alone, sitting at the table and, before she could say anything, looked at the groom on either side and seeing a dog, and quite angrily said:

- Dog, water damage to your hands!

The dog did not. The boy began to get angry and ordered them to bring more anger than water for the hands. But the dog still did not obey. Seeing that the dog did not, he rose angrily from the table and seizing the sword, lunged at the dog, who, seeing him come and undertook a rapid flight, pursued by the youth, both by jumping between clothing, table and fire both chased him, at last, the young man overtook him, caught him and cut his head, feet and hands, making pieces and causing bloodshed throughout the house, the table and clothes .

Then, very angry and filled with blood, sat down at the table and looked around. He saw a cat, who ordered that he should bring water for their hands as the cat did not, he shouted:

- How, false traitor! Have you not seen what I did with the dog for not obeying? I swear to God, if it takes to do that command, you will have the same death that the dog.

The cat did not move, because it is not his custom to carry water for the hands. As he did not, the young man stood up, grabbed her by the legs and slammed him against a wall, making it more than a hundred pieces and showing him with more ferocity than the dog.

So, outraged, angry and making gestures of anger, returned to the table and looked around. The woman, seeing him do all this, he thought he was crazy and said nothing.

After looking everywhere, he saw his horse, who was in the camera and though it was all she had, angrily ordered him to bring them water for their hands, but the horse did not obey. Seeing that he did not, he shouted:

- How, gift horse! Do you think, because I have another horse, I will respect life unless you do what I command? You are very confused, for if, unfortunately for yours, do not keep my commands, I swear before God to give you such a bad death like the others, because there is nobody in the world who disobeys me that does not suffer the same fate.

The horse did not move. When the youth saw that the horse does not obey, approached him, cut off his head with a lot of anger and then shattered.

Upon seeing his wife killed the horse, though he had another, and saying he would do the same with those who do not obey him, he thought that it was a joke and she got such great fear that he knew if he was alive or dead.

He and furious, bloody and angry, returned to the table, swearing that, if a thousand horses, men or women at home would not heed him, kill them all. He sat down and looked from side to side, his sword covered with blood on his lap, when he had looked very well, not seeing any living being but his wife looked back at her with great wrath and said a lot of anger, showing the sword:

"Rise and give me water for the hands.

The woman, who expected nothing else but that to pieces, got up hurriedly and brought him water he wanted. He said:

- Ah! I give many thanks to God because you have done what I sent you! Otherwise, and the disgust that these fools have given me, you would have done the same thing with them.

Then he ordered her serve the meal and she obeyed. Every time I ordered something, he said it so violently and with such a voice that she thought her head would roll across the floor.

This happened between them that night, she never spoke but merely to obey her husband. When they had slept for a while, told him:

"With so much anger as I had tonight, I could not sleep well. See that one morning I wake up and preparadme a good breakfast.

While still very early, the parents and relatives came to the door and as you could not hear anyone, thought the groom was dead or seriously wounded. Seeing through the doors to the bride and not the boyfriend, his fear was great.

She saw them at the door, they walked slowly and with fear, began to chide:

- Fools, fools! Why do you stand? How dare you come to this door? Are you not afraid to talk? Shut up, otherwise we will all die, you and I!

Hearing her say this, they were very surprised. When they learned what had happened between them that night, felt great esteem by the youth because he had managed to impose his authority and made it to the government of his home. From that day forward, his wife was very obedient and took very good life.

A few days later, his father wanted to do what his son, for which he killed a rooster, but his wife said:

"In truth, Don Fulano, that you decide too late, because nothing will be worth even mataseis hundred horses: before you ought to have done, now we know all too well.

He concluded Patronio:

"You, Count, if your relative wants to marry this woman and your family have the character of this young man, aconsejadle it does, then send in your home will know, but if it does not and can not do everything necessary to impose his future wife, must seize this opportunity. I also advise you that, when you have to deal with other people, you give them to understand from the outset how they behave with you.

The count saw that this was good advice, and acted as he did very well.

Like Don Juan found that the story was good, ordered him to write this book and wrote these verses as follows:

If no samples from the beginning who you are,

you never later, when wilt.


What happened to a merchant who found his wife and son sleeping together

One day he spoke Patronio Lucanor Count, your adviser, very angry about something and he had been told why he felt very offended Patronio also say it would take such revenge from this that all would remember forever.

When Patronio saw him so angry and angry, he said:

"Sir Count, I'd really like you to know what happened to a merchant who was one day to buy advice.

The earl asked him what had happened.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, in a village lived a wise man who had no other occupation or other work but to sell advice. The merchant, when he learned, was a man's house so wise and asked him to sell one of their advice. The sage asked him what price he wanted, as well as the price would be the advice. The merchant replied that he wanted a farthing. The sage took the coin and said to the merchant:

'Friend, when you invite someone to dinner, if you do not know what dishes come later, hartaos the first.

"The merchant said it had sold too good advice, but the sage replied that he had not paid for anything better. The merchant then asked her to give him advice that was worth a double, and gave. The sage advised him, when he felt very offended and wanted to do something in anger, do not rush or be carried away by rage to know the whole truth.

'The merchant thought that by buying these tips, you could lose as many doubloons had therefore refused to continue listening to the wise, while retaining the second tip in the depths of his heart.

"So she left the merchant by sea to distant lands and, at parting, his wife was pregnant. He stayed there so long, busy with his business, as the baby boy was born and reached the age of twenty. The mother, who had no children and took for her husband dead, he consoled himself with the son, who loved as a son and called her "husband" by love at his father. The young always ate and slept with her, like when I was a very young child, so she lived very honestly, but with great sorrow, because news did not reach her husband.

"The merchant was able to sell all his goods and returned with a large fortune. When he reached the port city where he lived, he said nothing to anyone, she went home and hid to see what was happening.

"Around noon, came home the son of that good woman and her mother asked

"Tell me, husband, where are you?

"The merchant, who heard his wife call her husband to the young man, he felt great regret, believing he was married to him or, if anything, made free, because the man was very young, and this seemed to the merchant a horrible offense .

He thought killing them, but, remembering the advice that had cost him a double, it was carried away by anger.

"At sunset they began to eat. When the merchant saw them together and still had more eager to kill them, but by the advice that you know, not carried away by anger.

"But when night and see them lying in the bed, he could not, and walked toward them to kill them. But, remembering that advice, was very angry but did nothing. And before extinguishing the fire, the mother began to tell the child, amid great lamentations:

'- Oh, my husband! I am told that today has come a ship of the land to which your father was. For the love of God I ask you to go to the port tomorrow morning early, and may God give you can hear.

"When the merchant heard this his wife, remembering that, from him she was pregnant, she realized that this young man was his son.

And do not be surprised if I tell you, the merchant rejoiced and thanked God to prevent the killing, as he had wanted to do, what would have been a terrible misfortune for him. I will add that well-worn gave the council the doubles cost him, he always remembered and never acted hastily.

"And you, Count, but I think it is very difficult to bear this insult, to say nothing be sure that is true, and I advise you not be led by anger or by precipitation till you know all the matter, since it is not something that can be lost because you wait a little, and yet you very soon you might regret your haste.

The Count thought that this was good advice, acted according to him, and did very well.

And when Don Juan that this story was good, ordered him to write this book and wrote this poem:

With anger in his hands you never act,

if not, assumed to be certain that you'll regret.


Answer given by Fernan Gonzalez to his men after the battle of Hacinas

Once again the count of a battle very tired, battered and poor, before he could rest, came the news that he was preparing a new war. Many of his people advised him to rest a while and then could do whatever he saw fit. Count Patronio asked your opinion on this matter. Patronio said:

"Sir, so you can do better and more convenient, I'd love to tell you the response that once gave Fernan Gonzalez to his subjects.

Count Patronio asked what they had said.

"Sir Count," said Patronio when Fernan Gonzalez Mansur defeated the king to overcrowding, many of its soldiers were killed and many survivors and even he himself received serious injuries. Before they could heal, he knew the count that the King of Navarre was to attack their lands, so he ordered his men ready to fight against Navarre. His soldiers answered that the horses were tired, so were they and, although this does not avoid going into combat, it should do because he and everyone else was injured, so that they should wait until all were cured.

When the count saw that everybody wanted to refuse to fight, valuing more the honor that fatigue, addressed them in these words:

'Friends, for injuries not abandon the enterprise as new wounds, which now cause us will make us forget the Hacinas received, compared to Moor Mansur.

"Seeing his men to the Earl did not worry or fatigue or wounds to defend their honor and their land, marched beside him. The count and his men won this new battle and came out very victorious.

"And you, Sir Count, if you do what is right to defend your people, your land and your honor praise, never sintáis pain, hardship or danger, but acted in a way that the new dangers and pains you do forget the past.

The count saw that this story was good, acted on the advice of Patronio and did very well.

And judging Don Juan that this story was very good, ordered him put into this book and wrote the verses as follows:

Let that be true, as proven true:

that idleness and honor not shared dwelling.


What happened to a man who was charged with precious stones and drowned in the river

One day the count told Patronio who had a stay in a villa where he had to give much money, with which it hoped to achieve great benefits, but at the same time afraid to stay there, since then it would risk his life. And so, begged him to advise him what to do.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, in my opinion, for what you do in this wiser, I want you to know what happened to a man wearing a treasure to the neck and was having a river.

The earl asked him what had happened.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, was a man who was carrying a large quantity of precious stones, and you were so very heavy. On his way had to pass a river and as carrying a heavy load, sank more than if not bring it. In the deepest part of the river, began sinking further.

"When he saw this man, who was in the river began to shout and tell him that if he did not leave this burden, was in danger of drowning. But the poor man did not understand that if I died drowning in the river, lost his life and treasure, but it could save the outflow of wealth. By greed, and thinking how much those gems worth, would not discard them and throw them into the river where he drowned and died and its precious cargo.

"To you, Sir Count, while money and other gains that podais get you could use, I advise that if the site is threatened your life, you remain there for no more money and achieve wealth. We also advise you to never forfeit your life if not a matter of honor or, if not done, serious damage will result, since it is estimated that in a short, and covetousness or lightness, risking his life, he who does not aspire to do great works, but that takes itself to such a lot has to do things that others appreciate it also, for man is not valued because he prides himself but because others admire in him his good works . Take, Count, be assured that such a person deemed a long life and will risk not by greed or by small thing, but on those occasions that truly deserve to risk your life, rest assured that nobody in the world will do so well worth as much and is estimated at its true value.

The count felt good this instance, acted according to him and did very well.

And as Don Juan saw that this story was very good, ordered him placed in this book and added these verses as follows:

To whom his life adventure of greed,

know that very little property they last.


What happened to a man with the swallows and sparrows

Again speaking Lucanor Patronio Count, your adviser, as follows:

"Patronio find no way to avoid war with one of the two neighbors have. But, so you can advise me the best thing you must know that the strongest live farther away from me, while the less powerful lives nearby.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, to do what most sensible for you, I want you to know what happened to a man with the sparrows and swallows.

The earl asked him what had happened.

"Sir Count," said Patronio was a very skinny man, who annoyed the sound of the birds when they sing, they would not let him sleep or rest, so asked a friend to avert a remedy swallows and sparrows.

"He answered his friend that he knew the remedy could only book by one of two things: either of the sparrows or swallows.

'The other replied that, although the swallow screams louder and louder as it comes and goes with the seasons, I'd rather be free from the noise of the sparrow, which always lives in the same place.

"Sir Count, I advise you not fight first with the most powerful, because he lives further, but with whom she lives closest to you, though its power is smaller.

The count he thought this good advice, was guided by him and gave good results.

As Don Juan much liked this story, sent it to in this book and wrote these verses as follows:

If in any way the war has to have,

Abbe your neighbor, not more power.

Story XL

Reasons why the general lost his soul a Carcassonne

Count Lucanor spoke Patronio and said:

"Patronio, as I know no one can avoid death, I would, before dying, to have done some useful work for the salvation of my soul, let me report and all I remember about her. So I beg you to advise me how best to achieve it.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, although good works always help us to salvation, no matter how or who to ask Him. For that you know why and for what purpose should be made, I'd really like you to know what happened to a general of Carcassonne.

The earl asked him to count it.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, a general of Carcassonne became very ill and, seeing himself near death, sent for the prior of the Dominicans and the guardian of the Franciscans, to deal with them in matters of his soul. He asked them to meet after his death had left many bequests to achieve their salvation. So they did, because the general had left them many goods in the will. The two brothers were very happy and confident in their salvation, as everything was done quickly and well.

"It happened that after a few days, came to town a woman possessed, saying wonderful things and wonderful, because the devil, which she spoke, she knows what is said and done.

"The monks who had attended the salvation of the general, hearing what he said the woman, thought it would be advisable to talk to her to give them news about the soul of the deceased. So they did. When they entered the house of the devil, before you ask them, told them he knew the reasons for his coming, because only very recently that was out of hell and there was the soul of the whole.

"When the brothers heard her say this, he replied that he was lying, since it was public how he had very holy death, aided by the sacraments of Holy Church, and as the Christian religion is the only true, it was impossible to would have condemned.

'I replied that she certainly Christian faith and religion are true, and if he had, when dying, you have to do a true Christian, would have saved his soul. He followed the devil saying he had acted as a true and good Christian, because although he had sent prayers and give alms to pray for his soul, had asked to do so after his death, with the intention that they should do so only once dead, regardless of your soul while living, hence ordered to do so after death, when their wealth is not good for anything or they could be carrying. Also told that the general had arranged well for get to eternal fame in what he did, just to achieve pride of the people.

"Therefore, although the general ordered to do good works, it was right, because God does not reward only good actions, but they are OK, who are daughters of a right intention. As a general intent was not good, because it came from his heart, did not get to God the eternal reward he expected.

"To you, Sir Count, since you ask me for advice, I tell you, in my opinion, you do in life as you want to do good. Know also that, to get before God reward for your good works, you must repair the damage that you may have done: there is little point to steal the sheep and then the legs of the poor for the love of God. Very little will be worth having robbed and stolen from everyone in order to later give alms from what is not yours. Know also that when the charity is good, contributing thereto these five requirements: first, to give something whose property is legitimate, and second, that takes place when one is doingAnd sorry, true repentance, thirdly, that man feels detached from giving, either by quantity or quality of the donation; room, which is made in life, and fifth, which made their mind on God and not for vanity or vanity. If these five conditions, all charities and good works are perfect and that makes them so generous award will of God. But if you, or anyone else, for some reason can not make them that way, so you should not stop doing them, thinking that by failing to meet all the requirements, will not help anything, for that would be a big mistake and tentaríais God to think so, since, in any manner that does good, it is always good. Know also that good works help man to forsake sin and do penance, while they give us physical health, wealth, honor and good reputation with the people. So I say to every good work to do man is always very helpful and useful, but much more profitable for salvation if it is meeting the five conditions which I have mentioned.

The count saw that it was true what he said Patronio decided to always act well and asked God to help him to follow the wise advice of Patronio.

And when Don Juan that this story was very good, ordered him to write this book and wrote these verses as follows:

Always do good, but with right intention,

if you want the sky, searching for salvation.

Story XLI

What happened to a king of Cordova called Alhaquen

One day he spoke the Count Lucanor Patronio thus:

"Patronio, you know that I am very good hunter and I have introduced many innovations in the art of hunting, previously unknown and much needed reforms in the leashes and the hoods of birds sceptería. Now those who want to get me mock me for my inventions, and praise the Cid Ruy Diaz or the Count Fernan Gonzalez by the victories or the holy and blessed King Ferdinand for his remarkable achievements, I commend my saying I performed a great feat to change a little leashes and hoods. As I realize that such praise is just a joke, I beg to advise me what should do to not scoff at me for those inventions so useful.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, that ye may know what more I should do to avoid such ridicule, I want you to know what happened to a king of Cordova called Alhaquen.

The earl asked him what had happened.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, there was a king named Alhaquen Cordoba, which, while maintaining his kingdom in peace, not tried to enhance his reputation or his honor with remarkable events, as they must make good kings, not only are obliged to retain his kingdom, but to increase it by lawful means and to strive in life to be praised by the people, that after death all will remember his great deeds and conquests. This king, however, did not worry about this, but to eat, rest and live idly in his palace.

It happened one day, to distract the king, before he played an instrument much like the Moors, which they call albogón. The king thought his sound was not as good as it should and, taking the albogón, added a hole in the bottom, then those who already had. With this invention Alhaquen got the king had the best sound albogón.

"Although this was a good reform, but not worthy of a king, the people, in derision, they began to praise his invention, saying if someone wanted to praise:" Wa hedi Ziat Alháquime 'which means: "This is the Alhaquen added.

"This sentence was so disclosed by land that reached the ears of the king who asked why they said. Although initially trying to hide, so he insisted that ultimately tell.

"By knowing the reasons, he felt great sorrow, but he was good king, he would not punish those who say that, but decided to make another added that necessarily deserve the praise of his subjects.

Then, as the Cordoba mosque was not yet finished, he added as he needed and the finished building. This is the largest and most beautiful mosque that had the Moors in Spain and, by God's help, now is a church called Santa Maria de Cordoba, since King Ferdinand conquered the city and the mosque dedicated to Santa Maria.

"When that king had finished the mosque, doing so good added, said that, until then had been duped by what he did in the albogón, from now on would be deservedly praised by the ending was added that magnificent mosque.

"And indeed, the king was highly praised, but if the compliments were once a mockery of him, then turned into singing, to the extent that it is very common among the Moors, when they want to praise something, say so:" This is the Alhaquen King added. "

"And you, Count, if you are upset or think that such praise is a mockery against you by the modifications made to the jesses and hoods of the birds of falconry, or your other innovations in the art of hunting, do other noble things and important characteristic of such distinguished gentlemen like you. So everyone will praise your deeds, just as I praise, derision, your additions and changes in the practice of hunting.

The count saw that this was good advice, and acted as he did very well.

And as Don Juan knew that this story was very good, ordered him to write this book and wrote these verses as follows:

If any you do well

important that not the case,

like it never dies,

do more if we could.

Story XLII

What happened to hell with a false devotee

Again speaking Lucanor Patronio Count, your adviser, as follows:

"Patronio, in a conversation with several friends have wondered how a very wicked man can cause more harm to others. Some say that leading revolts, others that fight against all others who commit serious crimes and crimes and others, slandering and defaming. For your good understanding I pray you tell which of these defects can cause worse damage to people.

"Sir Count," said Patronio to respond, I'd like to hear what happened to the devil with one of those women who have Beguine.

The earl asked him what had happened.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, was in a village a young man, married, who got along very well with his wife, which they never have disagreements or fights between them.

"As always the devil dislikes the good things, this marriage had great sorrow, for though long after they went to get weed, I never could get.

"One day, returning from the house where he lived this marriage, the devil was very sad because I could not let them fall into his temptations, when he met a beguine, which, admit it, he asked why I was so embarrassed. The devil replied that came from the house of that marriage, whose good relations would break a long time without success, and as his superior had heard of no use, had withdrawn his estimation, the reason for his sadness.

"The poor woman replied that she was surprised that, knowing both, I had not already achieved, but if she did what she said, could achieve their purposes.

"The devil replied that he would do whatever he advised, provided to bring the dispute to the life of that marriage.

"When the devil and the Beguine came to that agreement, the woman walked toward the house of marriage and gave many laps he got talking to the wife, whom he did believe he had been raised by her mother and, to show appreciation, the attempt could serve everything.

"The wife, who was very good, thought his words, allowed him to live at home and gave him his governorship. Also trust her husband.

"When I had long lived with them and had won his trust, was a day to the wife, pretending to be worried, and said:

"My daughter, much as it pains me have told me, that your husband likes another woman more, so you must treat it with love to never love another woman but you, because if this happens, it could come great evils and damages.

Hearing this, the good wife, but could not quite believe it, had great sorrow and was very distressed. When the false devotee looked so sorrowful, addressed the way it used to make the husband to return home. When they met, what made him failed because, having so good a wife, another woman he loved most, also told his wife already knew, and though it was heavy, had told him that as he behaved well knowing that she loved him so much, was willing to find another man to love her as much as him. He then asked that, by God, not find out his wife because if I did, she would die.

"The husband heard this, but I could not believe he felt great sorrow and was very sad.

"The false devotee, leaving her husband with this suspicion, he went to where she was the wife, which said among samples of great sorrow and pain:

"My daughter, do not know what misfortune threatens you, but your husband is very angry with you, as it is true what I say, now you will see come very angry and sad, which did not happen before.

"By leaving this concern, addressed to her husband and told him the same thing to the wife. When he arrived home, saw the woman was very sad and no longer took pleasure with each other, for they were both still worried.

"When the husband came back, said the wicked woman honored wife that, if permitted, would look for a magician to make a spell with her husband lose his indifference he had with her. Since she wanted the harmony back to your marriage, agreed, and thanked him.

"A few days later she returned and said he had met a magician who, with few hairs of the beard of her husband, of those born near the throat, could prepare some medicine for her husband had lost the anger against it and thus bring back to life as good as before or even better. He asked her, returning her husband, who got thrown into his lap and once slept with a knife given to him, he could cut his hair needed.

"The good wife for the great love he had her husband and very sorrowful for the rift between them, as he wanted very much enjoy the life that once carried, thanked him and said he would do so. This took the knife he handed the false woman.

"The poor woman turned at once to her husband and said he was sorry his approaching death, so did not want to hide what his wife had prepared: to kill him and leave him with his lover. To prove that this was true, he told how his wife and her lover that he had prepared: on his return he would ask women to sleep in his lap, once asleep, cut his throat with a knife he had hidden.

"When the husband heard this, was filled with fear and though he was very worried because so many falsehoods as the Beguine had told him this that he had even more worried now, resolving to be very alert and see if it was true because she said. With this embarrassment back home.

"Seeing him enter, she received her husband more affectionately than ever, while he recalled how so much work could never be treated or take a break, so they asked him to lay next to her and that he put the head in her lap for grooming.

The husband, hearing the demands of women, thought that as he had told the wicked was true, but, to see how far the malice of his wife, lay down beside her and pretended to be asleep. When they saw his wife had pulled the knife to cut the hair of the beard, on the advice of bad beguine. The husband, who saw his wife with a knife in his hand close to his throat, never doubted the beguine as he had said, got up, took the knife to his wife and killed it right there.

The father and brothers of the wife heard the noise of the fight, came readily to the house and saw his wife dead on the floor. Although they had never heard any complaints against her, nor by her husband or by any neighbor, seeing that crime, full of anger and rage, rushed against the husband, who was killed on the spot.

When he heard the shouts of, the husband's relatives came and as well see him dead, attacked those who had murdered and killed them. Both grew revenge on both sides died that day almost all the inhabitants of the town.

All this happened because the bad words of the wicked beguine. But since God never lets go unpunished crime and its cover-up does not allow either made people understand that all that blood had poured down the calumnies of the false devotee, whom they tortured to death between large pain.

"And you, Sir Count, if you want to know what the worst man in the world and can cause more harm to others, you must know who is who pretends to be a good Christian, honest and loyal man, but whose heart is false and devoted to pour feud slander and lies to people. I advise that evitéis the hypocrites, because they always live with deception and lies. So that you can know, remember this advice from the Gospel: "A eos fructibus eorum cognoscetis' which means: "By their works ye shall know them." Finally, remember that nobody in the world can hide forever the secrets of his heart, because sooner or later come to light.

The count saw that it was true what Patronio told, it was proposed to follow his advice and asked God to guard him and all his man so damaging.

And when Don Juan that this story was very good, had him write this book and wrote these verses as follows:

If you want to avoid such great misfortunes

do not be persuaded by false creatures.


What happened to the Good with the Bad and the sane with the insane

Count Lucanor Patronio spoke, his adviser, as follows:

"Patronio, I happen to have two neighbors: one person who I value greatly, as there are between the two many reasons to be grateful, but sometimes without my acierte to discover the cause affront and offends me, which really hurts . The other person is not required to show appreciation nor high esteem and, moreover, does things that I dislike. By your wisdom you please tell me how to behave with them two.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, what you ask is not one, but two, and quite different from each other. For more you should do as you can, I would like to tell two different events: what happened to the good and evil and what happened to a rope with a madman.

The earl asked him to count it.

"Sir Count," said Patronio such as different stories, first I'll tell you what happened to the good and evil and then what happened to the sane with the insane.

"Sir Count, Good and Evil agreed to live together. As Mal is more active, more restless, enemy of peace and is always plotting something, he told Good that it is highly desirable to have won with that move forward. As well accepted this proposal, agreed to have sheep. When sheep gave birth, said he chose evil good part he wanted.

"Good, that is good and measured, would not choose, but Mal told to do so, that he was very pleased to Evil, which, being wrong and misleading, suggested to the Good to stay with newborn lambs born and he would take the milk and wool from sheep. The Well she pretended to be satisfied with this unequal distribution.

"After that, Evil said it would be good to raise pigs, which seemed appropriate to the Good. When sows gave birth, Evil said that since Good had stayed with him lambs and milk and wool, now the Good should stay with the wool and milk of sows and piglets him. The well accepted that as his share.

"Evil then proposed to plant vegetables, and sowed turnips. When they were born, said that evil to good, not knowing what lay underground cogiera leaves of turnips, which were in sight, while he would be content with what he was born underground. Good accepted the partition proposed by Evil

"After sprouts and planted when they were born, said Mal, as he had chosen well before the leaves of turnips, which were above the earth, had now become part of the cabbage that comes under it. Thus, the goods remain with that party.

Then Evil told Well they should look for a woman to take the serve and always clean, which greatly pleased the right. When they found the woman, Evil said that from the waist up would be for the good and from the waist down would be for him. The Well accepted this deal, so his party did everything necessary in the house belonging to the Mal was married to him and had to sleep with her husband.

The woman became pregnant and gave birth to a son. When the mother was to breastfeed him, came the good, forbade him to do so, because the milk belonged to him and he would not waste it. Evil came very glad to see his newborn son, but, as we findor crying, the mother asked what was wrong. This told him that he was hungry because they sucked. The Mal told him to put it to his chest, but the mother answered that she could not prohibited by habérselo Well, since milk belonged only to him. When he heard evil, he spoke with Good and laughing and joking, asked to stop nursing her child, but Good said that milk was in his hand and not allow it. On hearing his reply, again pleaded Evil to Good to be agreed, and this, seeing his situation and his sentence, he said:

'Friend, do not naively think that by not realizing the difference between what and what they assigned me reserved for you, which although I never asked anything of yours, but as I could, I had with mine. And though you saw me and never hurt you or attempt to advance my position. If it is, God willing that you may need my help, do not be surprised if you do not want to help you and that, remembering how you have deceived me, you let your bad experience as payment for everything you have done.

"By understanding the Evil that Good told the truth, he was very sorrowful, for he saw that her son could die because of him, so he started to pray to the Well for that in the name of God, help him and take pity on that innocent child, for he promised to do hereafter what he commanded.

"When he heard it expressed so well, he thought that God had done a big favor by allowing the evil is in him, and seeing that the amendment could be done about the health of that child, said his wife Evil nurse if he could take him on his back and left with little in the city, saying loudly to be heard by all: "Friends, know that only by doing good, defeat the evil good." Under this condition, his wife could give milk for the baby. This greatly pleased the Evil, who thought he had paid a high price for her son's life, while the well regarded it as a great penance. Evil honor its pledge and everyone knew that good always overcomes evil through good.

"But the history of the sane and the insane man is different. It happened like this: a good man was the owner of a bathhouse, which used to go crazy when people were bathing, and beat them with blocks, stones, sticks and as found at hand, so people stopped going to those bathrooms. So the honest man began to lose all your earnings.

"Seeing the owner madman losses caused him, got up early and went into the bathroom before I came the crazy. He undressed, took a bucket of hot water and a large wooden mallet. By the crazy bathrooms to beat up people who could, as he often did, the owner, who was waiting, saw him enter, and in that moment, addressed him with anger and rage threw the bucket of boiling water by the head, grabbed the mace and gave him so many blows to the face and body in the rest of the crazy thought that killing him and thought the good man had gone mad. He came out shouting loudly and came across a man who asked him why he was shouting so, to what the madman said:

'Friend, beware that there is another crazy in the bathroom.

"And you, Sir Count, Behave well with your neighbors: When you are so grateful and reckon a lot, always Treat her as a friend, doing favors, giving accommodation and helping them in what you can, but sometimes I cause any harm, but to give him understand that you do for the love and affection that you have, not by obligation. The other, however, as not owe nothing, bear with nothing and give him to understand that you will avenge any offense that does, then better keep bad friends friendship out of fear and suspicion that goodwill.

The count saw that this was a very good advice, and acted as he did very well.

And as Don Juan felt these stories were good, had them write in this book and wrote these verses as follows:

Because good with their weapons always overcomes evil,

know that the bad man no one should help.


What happened to Don Pedro Ruy Gonzalez de Ceballos and Ruiz de Whitey Don Gutierre with the Count Rodrigo Franco

Again spoke Patronio Lucanor Count, your adviser, and said:

"Patronio, once, when I was at war and when my goods and property were at increased risk, some gentlemen, whom I was raised in my home and those who had favored liberally, I left and sought to harm me with my enemies, and even distinguished by its brutality against me. Such things have made have led me to have a worse opinion of men than it did before. For the wisdom that God has placed in you, I beg to advise me how I should think and act now.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, if you have betrayed those who had been as Don Pedro Núñez de Fuente Clams, Don Ruy Gonzalez de Ceballos and Whitey Don Gutierrez Ruiz, and knew what happened to them, would never have behaved well.

The count asked what had happened.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, the Count Don Rodrigo Franco married a lady, daughter of Don Gil Garcia Zagra and very honest woman, against whom the Earl her husband bore false witness. She, very hurt by these accusations, asked God that if she was indeed guilty, was punished, but to punish her husband if he was guilty.

"He barely finished his prayer, when God worked a miracle and asking him to count punished with leprosy. Then she left him. Being already separated, the King of Navarre sent his emissaries to this lady, married her and became queen of Navarre.

The count, seeing that there could be cured of leprosy, he went as a pilgrim to the Holy Land to die. Although it was very famous and had many good subjects, only those three gentlemen who accompanied him told you. Staying there for so long, did not have enough with what they had been to stay, so it came to such extremes of poverty that had nothing to feed the count, his master. Driven by necessity, every morning he offered two of them as waiters in the plaza and the third was left with his lord the count, thus they are fed and cared to count. In addition, every night I bathed, cleansing and curándole sores from leprosy.

"One night, wash his feet and legs, felt the three need to spit, and spit. When the count saw them do this, thought it was because of the revulsion it caused his illness and began to mourn and complain to your state.

"But they, to see his master did not feel disgust about his illness, his hands took water which was full of pus and lesions of leprosy, and drank it several times. He continued to live with the count, until she died.

"Seeing him dead, they thought it would be a shame for them to return to Castile without his master, and would not return without his body. Like, to take him, and ordered them to wash their bones cocieran they answered that nobody would touch his master, alive or dead. And since they did not consent cociesen, buried him and waited until the meat fell apart. Then they put the bones in a casket that carried on the shoulders of all.

"So they were walking, begging, with the remains of their master in tow, as though they brought testimony had happened. So poor but so happy they came to land in Toulouse where, upon entering a city, they encountered a group of people who would burn a very important lady, accused by a brother of her husband. They said these people that if any gentleman came to his defense, he would die under torture, which until then had not found anyone to defend her.

"When the happiness and loyal Don Pedro NÚÑEZ realized that gentleman not found, punished and the lady told colleagues that if he knew he was innocent, would leave the field to defend. It was then with the lady and asked about the merits of the allegations. She replied that she had never committed the crime of the accused, although he had wanted to. Seeing Pedro Nunez, for she had sinned with the heart, some evil might happen to those who defended it, as it had begun to protect it and was as innocent of the accused, said he would defend.

"The accusers wanted to be challenged by no gentleman, but when he taught them the testimonies and reports that he had, had to accept it. The relatives of this lady gave horse and arms for pelease. Don Pedro said before the fight that, with God's help, he would win honor and save the lady, but as it was not entirely innocent, could expect to get any damage.

"Since I entered the camp, God helped Pedro Leal, who defeated in battle and saved the lady, but lost an eye in combat, fulfilling what he said Don Pedro before entering the battlefield.

The lady and her relatives gave much money to Don Pedro el Leal, which could continue to carry the remains of his master, Count, without so many penalties.

"On hearing the king of Castile blessed that those three gentlemen came with the remains of his master, the Count, and how his trip had been so happy, he was very happy and thanked God that three gentlemen of his kingdom had made such a feat. The king sent word that follow walk their way, with the same rags they brought. As they approached the border of Castile, the king himself came out to meet the five leagues from his kingdom, making such grant that, even today, his descendants have inherited from the monarch granted them.

The king and the knights accompanying him, to honor the memory of the count and pay tribute of gratitude to the three gentlemen, accompanied the remains of the count until Osuna, where were buried. Then the gentlemen went away to their land.

When Ruy Gonzalez arrived home, he sat at the table with his wife, seeing her flesh before his eyes, raised his hands to heaven and said:

"- Lord! Bless you for giving me the grace to live this day, because you know that, after leaving my husband, Don Ruy Gonzalez, this is the first time I eat meat and drink wine!

"On hearing it, Don Ruy Gonzalez felt very sad and asked why he did it. She replied that when he left with the count, he had said he would never without his master and had asked her to lead a life without blemish, he never would lack neither bread nor water at home, and as He had said this, she should not disobey, so he had only eaten bread and drunk water.

"Similarly, when Don Pedro Nunez got home, left him alone, his wife and his relatives, his wife and relatives were so happy and excited that they began to laugh. Don Pedro Nunez thought they were making fun of him because he lost an eye, so he covered his head with the blanket and locked in their rooms. Seeing him thus, his wife became very sad and both insisted that Don Pedro and told him he was mocked for it by being eyed. Upon hearing his wife, he stuck a needle in the eye and was blind in one eye, telling Don Pedro Nunez had done so, if I ever saw laugh, could not believe that it was for his default.

"So God rewarded those knights because it did.

"And you, Count, never tire of doing good while some make you wrong, because those who seek to harm the more damage you do to themselves than to you, and I thinkIf those who were mean to you had been like these three gentlemen and knew how much good they reported being loyal to his master, would not have behaved as they did. Think also that if some broke their loyalty, many others remain loyal to you, and you most benefited those loyalty disloyalty of these. Do not think that you will not be reciprocated by those who have remained with largesse, but only one will think that you both well spent that you give what you have done for them all.

The count this advice seemed good and true.

And when Don Juan that this story was very good, ordered him to write this book and wrote these verses as follows:

Never stop doing what is due,

but some do not behave well with you.

Story XLV

What happened to a man who became a friend and vassal of the Devil

He spoke again Lucanor Patronio Count, your adviser, as follows:

"Patronio, a man says he knows many omens and charms for not only I can know the future, but also to increase my wealth and property, but I am sure that these evil practices are always sin. For the trust I have in you, I beg to advise me what to do in this case.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, so you can make it more convenient, I would tell you what happened to a man with the devil.

The earl asked him to count it.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, was a man who, having been very rich, became so poor that he had nothing to eat. As in the world there is no greater disgrace than misery for those who have always been happy, the man who was so good, looking so poor, he felt very unhappy. When one day he walked alone through the woods, very sad and hopeless, he met the devil.

"As the devil knows all things past, although he knew the man's misfortune, asked him why he was so sad and sorrowful. The man answered that I must tell you, because he could not end their troubles.

"Now the devil told him if he would obey, he would end his troubles and for him to see who could do it, then tell him what he was thinking and why he was so sad. Then he told its history and the reasons for his sadness, saying also that if he did what he ordered, him out of misery and make it the richest of all men, because, as was the devil, had power to do so.

"Hearing him say he was the devil, the man was very scared, but he brought with grief and misery in which he was, he replied that if he was getting rich, I would obey in all things.

"As the devil is always seeking the better opportunity to deceive men, when he sees them anxious, fearful, at times of difficulty or unable to get what they want, is there the best opportunity to achieve whatever you want them, hence sought how to cheat the man who was so desperate.

"They signed a pact and then man became a vassal of the devil. After this, the devil said to the man who, thereafter, could steal whatever he wanted, he never would find a home or a closed door, however well they were closed, he was not the open, and, if by chance they saw in trouble or in prison, it would suffice to say: 'Help, Don Martin, for he came to his rescue and recover liberty.

"After all this, they separated.

"A very dark night, for those who are friends of crime act always in the dark, the man walked home from a dealer. When he reached the door, the devil is opened and the ark, which got a good haul.

"Another day, made a grand theft, and then another, until it became so rich that he no longer remembered the poverty in which he lived. But since that unfortunate he was not happy to be out of penury, followed increasingly stealing and stole both ended in jail.

"On being captured, he called Don Martin, to help him. Don Martin came immediately and took him out of prison. Seeing the man the devil kept his word, began stealing as ever, making many more robberies, to the extent that it became very rich.

Once, when he was committing a burglary, was caught and taken to jail. The man called out to Don Martin, but this did not come as quickly as before, but when the judges of the place had begun their inquiries into the crime. When Don Martin arrived, he told the man:

'- Oh, Don Martin! I have spent much fear! Why have you taken so long?

"He said Don Martin, who was solving other very important issues and therefore had taken more, but then released him from prison.

The man returned to his theft and, as he stole both, was imprisoned again. After the proceedings, the judges sentenced him. This time Don Martin took him out of danger, but when he had been tried and convicted.

The man returned to steal because they found that Don Martin always came to his aid. But again he was caught and imprisoned, and though he called Don Martin, this did not come. Both delayed the man was tried and sentenced to death, and only then came Don Martin, who appealed to the king, thus freeing him from prison and returning to freedom.

"Again and again stole was imprisoned again. He called Don Martin, who did not come until he had already been hanged. When he ascended the scaffold, appeared Don Martin and the man said:

'- Oh, Don Martin! That this is not a joke, since I have been very scared!

"Le Don Martin said that he brought 500 maravedíes in a bag, which the judge would and so would be free. The judge had already ordered him hanged, but could not find the rope, while the sought, the judge called the man and handed him the bag with money. Thinking about the judge who delivers 500 maravedíes said the people who were there:

'Friends, have you ever seen missing rope to hang a man? Certainly, this man must be innocent, for God does not want to die and, therefore, we need the rope. Let's leave it for tomorrow and see if more carefully because, if he is guilty, we take time to execute the statement.

"The judge did this to release it for the money they thought had given him. When deferred execution, the judge went to a secluded place and opened her purse, hoping to find the 500 maravedíes, but found only a rope, and not money. Just saw this, ordered him hanged.

"When they were about to hang, came Don Martin and the man asked him for help, but Don Martin replied that he always trying to help his friends to see them in that place.

"He lost his life and that unfortunate soul, to trust and obey the devil. Then you must be certain that nobody ever who have cregone in their pledges or trusted him, had a good end, see, if not all who are omens, or cast lots, the soothsayers, who invoked the devil, to which they practice magic spells or, and see that always end badly. Remember, if you do not believe me, Nunez and Garcilaso, who both believed in omens and charms, and what was the end to their misery.

"And you, Sir Count, if you take good life and save the soul, trust in God placed in him as your hope and strive pudiereis that He will help you. But do not believe or trust in omens, or the like, therefore, there are many sins, this is what most offends God and that more men away from their Creator.

The count saw that this was good advice, and acted as he did very well.

Like Don Juan saw that this story was very good, ordered him to write this book and wrote these verses as follows:

Awaits seedy, low life awaits

who trusts in God, nor has their hope.

Story XLVI

What happened to a philosopher who by chance came on a street where poor women living

Again speaking Lucanor Patronio Count, your adviser, as follows:

"Patronio, you know that one of the things of this world which is more we must strive to achieve a good reputation and preserve it intact. Since I know that in this and many other things anyone can advise me better than you, I pray you tell me how I can enhance and save my reputation.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, much like what I say. So that you can do this best, I want you to know that happened to a great philosopher who was very old.

The count was asked what had happened.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, a great philosopher, who lived in a city of the kingdom of Morocco, suffered an embarrassing disease, because it could only act with pain, sorrow and very slowly.

"To spare him the trouble he suffered, doctors had ordered him that whenever he needed it works at once, without leave for later, they thought, the more you leave, the stool would be drier and harder, with consequent damage and injury to their health. Following the advice of his doctors, he acted as I say and I felt some relief.

It happened one day, going down a street in that city, where he had many disciples who followed his teachings, it came wanted to do as I have told you. To do what his doctors advised him and gave him so well, got into an alley to do the toilet.

"It so happened that on that street lived women in public life, that if they harm your body also dishonor your soul. But the philosopher who knew nothing about those women lived there. For the kind of illness he suffered, by the time he spent in that place and it looked to the exit of the lane, but did not know who lived there, everyone thought he had gone there to do anything improper in what must be done and of what until then had done. If someone does something respectable that deserves censure and criticism, however small, they all look worse and makes more than talk when it comes to someone doing worse things publicly, thus this philosopher began to criticize and speak ill of him, then, being so old and seemingly so much virtue, had visited such a place, so damaging to his body, his soul and his own fame.

"When he got home, his disciples came to him that with great sorrow and grief, told him what a misfortune or sin was that by which he had disgraced himself and them, his disciples, while he had lost the fame that had hitherto kept spotless.

The philosopher, to hear them speak so, much astonished and asked them why they said that, or what fault had been committed, not sure what you were talking about. They replied that I should not hide, because there were no other city that does not comment his wrongdoing when he visited the alley where poor living women.

"When the wise heard this explanation, he felt great sorrow, but asked them not to be regretted, since there will be eight days to respond.

She then withdrew to his study where he wrote a book, short but very nice and helpful. Apart from other good things, as if holding a conversation with his disciples on the good and bad fortune, he states:

"" Children, with good and bad luck happens: sometimes it is sought and found, although sometimes found independently. The sought and found is when a man does good deeds, through which one gets happiness, that same applies to his evil deeds by some misfortune happens. This is the fate, good or bad, found and searched by man for doing its utmost to come to the right or wrong you are looking for.

' "Likewise, the sought is found, not when a man, doing nothing for it, something good happens to you or any property, for example, a man who goes through the countryside and find a treasure or anything of great value without having endeavored to find him. That's what happens when a man, without having deserved it, something bad befalls you or some misfortune, it is as if a man were walking down the street and it landed another threw a stone at a bird that going across the sky. This is the bad luck and unintended found, because this man never did anything to happen to him this misfortune.

"" Children, you must know that the good or bad luck found and searched combines two things: that the man help himself, doing good to bring about good and evil deeds if this is what you are looking for, also deserve the reward or punishment from God according to their deeds whether good or bad. Similarly, good or bad luck, found and unintended, it takes two things: that man is avoided as soon as possible to do evil or to seem, Where you can come some misfortune or bad reputation and, secondly, ask and pray to God, for he seeks to banish from us the misfortune or the bad reputation, it also helps to keep them there occurs any accident, as I happened to me the other day when I walked into an alley to do what could not be excused for my own health, but it was something innocent and that I could not come bad reputation, for my misfortune those women lived there, although I went without fault, I was widely criticized and was disgraced. "

"And you, Count Lucanor, if you want to preserve and increase your fame and honor, you must do three things: first, very good works that please God and this is achieved, which then as soon as possible, pleasing to men , always ensuring your state and dignity, but without forgetting that, however good reputation you have, you can lose it if, having to do good works, do the opposite, because many men do good works for some time and, And then moved away from that path, the merit achieved lost and ended badly. The second thing is to pray to God to enlighten you on the conservation and increase your fame, while away from the chance of losing you, for your works or words. The third thing is that neither by word or deed anything you ever do that so that people would challenge your fame, you must always keep foremost, since many men do good deeds, but as suspicions rise and seem bad in the eyes of the people are like really bad. Bear in mind always that in cases related to fame as much advantage or disadvantage people are saying as the truth itself, but for God and the soul have only works that man does, and the intention to save.

The count this story seemed very good and begged God to let him do the necessary work to save their souls and increase his reputation, his honor and status.

And as Don Juan saw that the story was excellent, ordered him to write this book and wrote a poem which read:

Always do good without raising suspicion,

so if your fame extends over the heavens.


What happened to a Muslim with her sister who said she was very frightened

One day he spoke the Count Lucanor Patronio follows:

"Patronio, know that I have a brother, father and mother, older than me, so I like to respect and obey my elders. He has a reputation of being very intelligent and a good Christian, but God wanted me to be richer and more powerful than himself, and though not admit, I am sure that I envy. Whenever I need your help or ask you to do something for me, is excused by saying it can not be sin, and dragging its feet, stop to help. However, when he needed my help, I said that although the world sank, I risk my life and my property to do what you ask. As usually behaves well, I beg to advise me the most convenient way to solve this issue.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, I think your brother's behavior is much like a blackberry with yours.

The count asked what had happened.

"Sir Count," said Patronio a Moor had a sister so look for anything that you saw or did, it implied that he felt fear and dread. It was so delicate that when drunk in some mugs with the Moors, then it sounds like the water a bit, he said he went so frightened by the noise that was about to faint.

"His brother was a very good boy, but very poor, and, as poverty forces men to do what they do not want, that young man had to make a living in a very embarrassing, because whenever someone died, was night to the cemetery and took away the shroud and the funeral offerings. This kept his sister, he and the whole family. And the girl knew.

"Once he died a very wealthy man, who was buried with luxurious gowns, jewels and valuable things. When he heard his sister, said she wanted to accompany him that night to help bring all the riches with which he was buried.

"Being now dark, you were the boy and his sister to the cemetery, arrived at the tomb of the dead and opened, but when she wanted to remove the rich cloth wearing, they saw they could not do it without cutting or breaking the neck of the deceased.

"Seeing her sister that if they did not break his neck the dead, would have to break the clothes, which would lose all its value, grabbed her hands and head of the deceased, without compassion and without penalty, split body , who dislocated it. Then she took off her clothes she wore, and wealth, and left them.

"But the following day, when they were eating, drinking water, the pot began to ring and said the delay was going to faint by that small noise. When his brother saw him and remembered the coldness and indifference he had shown to dislocate the head of the dead, he said in Arabic:

"- Aha and ohti, tafza min Bocu, Bocu, liz is disguised tafza min fotuh.

"Which means:" Oh, sister, you are frightening sound of the jar, that gurgling, and not be scared of the dead man's head. This phrase has become a proverb, which use much the Moors.

"And you, Sir Count, if you see that your elder brother apologizes for what I should do-as-you told me, saying that it is sin that you ask, although it is not, and then asks you who you do the things that interested him, but sin is more serious and damaging to you, understand that acts as the default, which is terrified of the sound of water in the pot and brought him no fear dislocate the head of the dead. When I ask you do in your favor anything that can harm you, act like him as he does with you: give him good words and be very nice to him. If you ask for something that will not harm and help them if you can, but if not, excusaos always very polite to the end, by one means or another, his request went unheeded.

Count understood Patronio gave good advice, followed it and did very well.

And when Don Juan that this story was good, ordered him to write this book and wrote these verses as follows:

If anyone will not help as yours,

when something prompted, answer that you will.


What happened to one that proved to friends

Again, speaking Lucanor Patronio Count, your adviser, said:

"Patronio, I have many friends, I believe, which I promise to do whatever suits me, even if it means having to risk life or property, and even swear that I will always be with me despite any danger. As you are very acute understanding, I pray you tell me how will I know if these friends of mine made for me what they say.

"Sir Count," replied Patronio, a good friend is the best and most precious in the world, but think that when they come needs and misfortunes, are very few who are with us, moreover, whether the risk is not large, is difficult to know who would be true friend in straitened circumstances. So that you may know what are the real friends, I want you to know what happened to an honest man with his child who boasted many loyal friends.

The earl asked him what had happened.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, honest man who had a son, among many other warnings, always advised to strive to achieve many good friends. The son did so and began to surround himself with many, who entertained and presented to gain their friendship. And those you again and again declared their friendship, telling her he would do for as long as necessary, and even risk their lives and property on occasion.

"One day when the young man with his father, the latter asked whether he had followed his advice and if he had won many friends. The boy replied that he had many and, above all, there were ten of those who could ensure that neither through fear of death itself, would abandon him in a haul of danger.

"When the father heard her say this, he replied that he was surprised that so soon would have won so many faithful friends, for he, who was elderly, had no more than a friend and a half. The son began to insist, saying again and again that it was true what I told her of his friends. When the father saw his son persevered well, he asked that prove this: to kill a pig, you get into a bag and go home for each of your friends and tell them that a man wearing whom he was dead. You should also tell you that, if his crime was becoming known for justice, could not, for the world, escaping death neither he nor any of its accessories, and so he begged them, as were his friends, hiding the corpse and defend if necessary.

"The youth did so and went to prove to his friends as his father had commanded him. When he got home each of them and told them the danger, they all said that on other needs to help, but not in this, because they might lose life and property, and asked for God's sake, no one knew that had talked with them. Some of his friends told him that if he was condemned to death, would seek clemency for him, others assured him that when they take to execute, would be with him until the last moment and then very solemnly buried.

"When the boy was tested and all friends and none of his help, she went to her father and told him what had happened. With that, the father replied that he had found that most know who have seen and experienced much that they have no experience of the world or life. Then he said again that he had only friend and a half and told her to go to try them.

"The boy was to prove to his father described as half-friend and got home at night, with the pig in tow. He knocked on the door and told the half-friend of his father's misfortune had befallen him and his friends had deserted him, and finally begged for the friendship he had with his father help him in that situation so dangerous .

"When the means friend heard his words, replied that he had no friendship with him or try to risk much, but that, however, by the estimate he felt toward his father, was willing to cover it up.

And then she began to back the sack with the dead pig, thinking it was actually a man, took him to the garden and buried in a groove of cabbage, which returned to them as they were before, and dismissed the young man, who wished good luck.

"The boy came home from his father and told him what had happened with his half-friend. He sent his father the next day, when they were on board, began to discuss any matter with his half-friend and, along with discussion, on the face give him the greatest blow that could. The boy did what his father told him, and when the half-friend was slapped in public, looked at him and said:

"" Really, my dear, you've done very badly, but rest assured that neither this nor any greater offense discover the garden sprouts.

"When the boy told him his father sent him to prove this to a friend who considered fair. The child did so. The boy came home from a friend of his father, he told the false story of the dead and heard it, the good man, a friend of his father, promised to keep it from damage and death. It happened, coincidentally, in those days a man had died in that city and did not know who was guilty. As some saw this young man come and go many times with the sack on his back, under cover of night, he thought it would be the murderer.

"But what extend? The youth was tried and sentenced to death. The friend's father had got everything he could to escape, but when he saw that it was impossible to avoid his punishment, he told the judges did not want to be responsible for the death of an innocent and so the young man told them not was the murderer, but the killer was the only son he had. He sent his son to plead guilty, which he did, and was therefore executed. Escaped death so young, thanks to the sacrifice of a friend of his father.

"Sir Count, I have told you how are tested friends. I think this story teaches us to recognize a good friend, before we try them in grave danger confident in their friendship, and also lets you know how far they are willing to help us when necessary. You can be sure there are some real friends, but many more who call friends and prosperity only when fortune is adverse, they disappear.

"This story also has the following spiritual interpretation: all men think they have friends in this world, but when death comes, have to try them in this predicament and, therefore, ask consolation to the laity, say they already have enough own concerns, promising them religious prayers and supplications for his soul and even his wife and children will simply answer that accompany visitors to the burial and funeral they will make very luxurious. So those who had tested as true friends. And as there are in them any help against death, Turn to God who is our father, just as the youth of the story took refuge in his father, whom he believed to be abandoned by his friends, and then God sends them to prove to the saints, which are like half-friends . So they do. So great are the goodness and piety of the saints and, above all, the love of Mary, that never stop praying to Christ for sinners. The Virgin Mary reminds her son how was your Mother and the work suffered for Him and the saints will evoke the pains, penalties, tortures and persecutions suffered by name and all this do to cover our sins. And so, despite having received many offenses, we discover not accuse us, as the young man did not accuse the media friend of his father, despite the slap he gave the son of his friend.

"When the sinner feels that, despite these intercessions, can not escape from eternal punishment, he turns to God, as the young man returned to his father's history to see that no one could prevent death. And God Our ItNor, as father and true friend, remembering the man who professes to love, his creature, made like the good friend, He sent His Son Jesus Christ to die for the redemption of our faults and sins, although He was innocent and clean of missing. And Jesus Christ, as a good son, obeyed His Father, and being God and man would receive the death and suffering, with his blood to cleanse us from our sins.

And now, Sir Count, consider which of these friends are the best and most faithful, and who must win and regarded as such. Too happy to count these reasons, it found clear and excellent.

Displaying Don Juan that this story was good had him write this book and wrote this poem:

Man I could never find such a good friend

but God, who loved him with his blood to buy.

Story XLIX

What happened to that left naked on an island at the end of its mandate

Again speaking Lucanor Patronio Count, your adviser, and said:

"Patronio, many tell me that since I'm so famous and powerful, I must increase my wealth, my power and honor, as this is best for me and most of my own state. Since I know your advice is very wise and always have been, I pray you tell me what in your opinion, more in my favor.

"Sir Count," said Patronio is very difficult to give you the advice you ask for two reasons: first, because, advise, I have to go against your will in part, the second reason is that it might be inappropriate to contradict the advice that seem to favor. As in this case there are two circumstances, I find it very risky to discourage people from what I advise. However, since all Board, For being loyal, but should not seek profit from their master, to which shall advise the best we know, never careless own benefit or harm that may come to him, nor the pleasure or displeasure of his master, I will tell you It seems to me that what you will be more useful and honorable. So, I must say that those who advise you to increase your wealth only half give you good advice, which is not entirely perfect nor is good for you. For you to see this better, I'd really like you to know what happened to a man who made him lord of his country.

The count asked what had happened.

"Sir Count," said Patronio in a country were accustomed to choosing a man as lord for one year, during which they obeyed in everything. But at the end of the year, took away everything he owned, took him to a deserted island and left him naked, not allowing anyone to accompany him.

It happenedonce he was elected as lord a man much smarter and more proactive than any of his predecessors. Knowing that at the end of his mandate, to do the same as the others, before his term expired without anyone knowing, built on the island where he was exiled a large and comfortable, which kept many provisions may be required for the rest of his life. The house was built in a place so secret that nobody and no one who had elected him lord could discover it. He also warned that some friends and family, when they saw that something was missing as necessary, send it, never lacked for food or clothing.

"When the fullness of the year and stripped the land of command led him naked to the island, as they had all but he could live very happily, because, as had been so proactive in sending build that house, I can live content and happy in it.

"And you, Sir Count, if you listen to my advice, think that during your life in this world, then certainly you must leave and go naked into the afterlife, unable to bring you anything here except the good work, you must try to do so many and so large that, on leaving this world, ye have built a solid home in the other, and even go out naked in this, you will have gained a mansion for eternal life. Know also that the spiritual life is not counted by years, because the soul is eternal and can not die or become corrupted, but lives for ever and ever. Know, too, that God points out the good and bad deeds that men do in this world, to give them a reward or punishment in the other, according to their deserts. For all these reasons, I advise you to do such deeds in this world that when you abandon, you find good mansion on the other, where you will live forever, and that the dignity and honor in this world who are vain and perishableNot ye lose what is to last forever. These good works I say you should make them without ostentation or pride, for which, although known by others, do not appear to result from pride or presumption. Also, ask your friends that you do for your soul what you is you did not finish on earth. But had this in mind, I think that not only can but must do everything in your power to preserve and increase your wealth and power.

The count knew that this tale was not only very good but also kept a good advice and are therefore, asked the Lord to help him to act as Patronio had advised.

And when Don Juan that this story was very good, ordered to be written in this book and wrote a poem which read:

In this vain world, fleeting, perishable,

Never lose another, much longer.

Story L

What happened to Saladin with the wife of a vassal

He spoke again Lucanor Patronio Count, your adviser, as follows:

"Patronio, well I know that you are so smart that nobody on this earth could respond better than you what you ask. Therefore I pray you tell me what is the best quality which man can have. I'm asking because I understand many virtues that are necessary to determine the best and do it, because if we only see what should be done, but we do not provide the means to execute it, will not greatly increase our reputation or prestige. Because qualities are so many, I wonder what is the main, to have it always in my decisions.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, you, for your kindness, elogiáis me a lot and I decís always I am very intelligent. But Mr. Earl, I think you are confused or wrong. Know ye that there is nothing in the world we so easily deceive ourselves and the knowledge of people and their intelligence, since they are two different things, one, know what the man and another, balancing your intelligence. To learn how the person, we should observe how it is that everyone works done for God and the world, as many seem to do good works that are not, since its purpose is to win the praise of people. You must know that their false virtue will cost very expensive, because it is something that just lasts a day and yet, will lead to eternal punishment. There are others who do good works in service and honor of God, without worrying about worldly vanities, and although they choose the best part, they can never lose, neither the one nor the other addressing the ways of God and the world, for which necessary travel.

In order not to neglect any of these ways, we need very good intelligence work and subtle, What is so difficult to combine and put his hand into the fire and not burn it out, but if the man has the help of God and know, too, help yourself, anything can be achieved, as there are many good kings and holy men who were righteous before God and the world. I will add that, to know who is intelligent, there are things that look good, as many say very kind words and beautiful sentences, but their issues are not as good as it would be desirable, others by contrast, managed in a way excellent, but will not or can not say three words correct. There are also speaking with great elegance and know unfold, but as they have bad intentions, but are always beneficial to them, their works are detrimental to others. Know that the Scriptures say these are like the fool who wears a sword or as an evil prince who has much power.

"But for that you and all people you can know who is good for God and the world, who is intelligent, who on a fluent, who understand the good, and so you can choose it, they should not judge anyone but by the good works done for a long time and not those made in a short period and by the increase or decrease of property, that these two things can be checked as you said before.

"All these reasons I have said because very often I destacáis alabdis and my intelligence, but I'm sure that if you think about all these things, I elogiaríais both.

To answer the question what is the best quality which man can have, I would tell you what happened to Saladin with a very honest lady, wife of a knight vassal, and so would know what the best condition of a person .

The count asked what had happened.

"Sir Count," said Patronio, Saladin was the sultan of Babylon, and always wore a very large procession. As he once could not lodge all in the same house, it went into that of a gentleman. When he saw his master, who was so honest and powerful, at home, did his best to please and serve Him, and so did his wife, their sons and daughters. But the devil, who always looks for ways to confuse and make men sin, made Saladin forget the respect that is owed to himself and his vassal and is passionately in love with this lady.

"Both he wanted to seek help from a bad adviser, that will tell you how to get it. Know, Count, they all must ask God to save his master of evil desires, then, if it wishes to conceive and carry them out, never miss someone bad advice and help you implement them.

"It happened to Saladin, who then returned to tell him how to get this lady. The bad advisor suggested he did call the husband to grant him great riches and put him in front of a large army, which should come from distant lands, in any business of the sultan. When the knight had receded, Saladin could accomplish his purposes.

"The scheme met much the sultan, who did so. When the gentleman had already left the service of his lord, thinking I had been lucky and remained a close friend of Sultan Saladin went home from the gentleman. By knowing the honest lady who seeía home again, as he had given her husband much merit, was very well to the sultan, whom he served and pleased as she could and her servants. After eating, Saladin entered his chamber and asked her to come. The lady, believing he needed something, he went to the room of the Sultan. Seeing it, Saladin said he loved her very much. She, however, although well understood his intentions when he said this was as if I had not understood, he replied that he appreciated it and asking God to give him a long and good life, for God knew how often you requested by him, that never in any danger, something I should do because he was his master and, above all, by the grants awarded to her husband and herself.

Saladin replied that, apart from that I loved her more than any other woman in the world. She turned to thank him, as if he had not understood his intentions. Why stretch it more? The Sultan said the scope of its claims and the lady, hearing, and was very honest and very intelligent, Saladin replied:

"Sir, although I am a poor woman, know that love is in the hands of man, but this in the hands of love. Also, if you say you love me so much, may be true, but I also know that when men, especially to the gentlemen, like a woman promise to do whatever she wants, but when they see it without honor scorned the estimated minimal and, of course, she is mocked and degraded. I, sir, I suspect that the same happen to me.

Saladin tried to convince her, swearing that he would do whatever she wanted to always live happily. When the Sultan heard this, the good wife said that if he promised to do, before coercing and dishonor, which was going to ask, she would do everything he wanted, after fulfilling his promise.

"Saladin answered him, saying he feared that he ask not to treat this issue anymore, but she replied that they would not be that or nothing I could not be done. Saladin then promised. The honorable lady kissed her hand and feet, and said that all he wanted was to tell him what was the best quality of man, who was the mother and head of all other virtues.

"When the Sultan heard this he began to think the answer with great interest, but could not think of any. As he had promised not to touch it until they reach the agreement, asked him some time to think. She said she would do everything he commands when you answer your question, without setting a deadline.

"This happened between them. Saladin and his men turned and, as if for another reason, he asked all the wise men. Some replied that the best quality of man was a good soul. Other famous that this could be true for the other world, but only the goodness of heart was not the best for this. Other scientists felt that it was best loyalty, although there were those who felt that, being very good loyalty, could be both true and cowardly or mean, or lewd, or bad habits, so it needed to be something more than just loyal. This was true of all good qualities, unable to find answers to the question of Saladin.

"Seeing the sultan could not find in the land who could answer, called two minstrels to go with them through the world without being recognized. And so, secretly, crossed the sea, going to Rome, where Christians gather each. As much as asked, no one could answer. After the court became the king of France and of other kings, but found the answer. So much time went by, they even came to regret his company.

"If it was just to get to this lady, I would have left, but because it was so powerful, I thought it would be a shame to abandon what had already started because there certainly is a serious humiliation for a great man to leave what has been initiated, provided that is not guilty, but if you leave out of fear or the job costing, it will be shameful. So Saladin never wavered in that commitment, that had brought him out of his kingdom.

It happened that a día, walking along a road with two minstrels, they met a squire who was returning from hunting and had killed a deer. This squire had married not long ago and his father, who was very old, had been the best knight in the neighborhood. For the elderly unable to leave home, but, although he had lost his sight, had a very experienced and deep intelligence that his age was not a burden to him. The squire, that he was very happy, asked them where they came from and who they were. They said they were minstrels.

"Upon hearing this, rejoiced and told them that, as hunting became so happy, I wanted to throw a party, asked them, for as good minstrels seemed, to accompany him that night. He was told the three that could not stop because it had long had left their land to solve a puzzle and as I did not, wanted to return as soon as possible, so that they could not stay with him that night.

So many times the squire asked what was the question that had to tell him. When the squire's learned, he said that if his father could not give the answer, no one could. He told them who and what his father was.

"When Saladin, whom the squire was a minstrel, heard his words, he was very happy and left the three with him. On reaching home, the soldier told his father that he was so happy to have hunted a lot and have met with the three minstrels. He also told what they were asking and asked him to please answer, because they had been told that if he could not answer, no one could.

"When the old gentleman heard him, knew that whoever asked that question could not be a minstrel, and his son replied that the answer would say after eating. That is what the squire said to Saladin, who was a minstrel, who was delighted, although it was quite impatient to wait for the answer, for them to finish the meal.

When removed the tablecloth and the minstrels did all they knew, the old gentleman addressed them, telling how her son had told him they were seeking an answer to a question, and nobody so far could have give it. Then he asked the question to be told that he would answer as far as I could.

"Then Saladin, dressed in minstrel replied that the question was this: what is the best quality that can be the man, who is a mother and head of all other virtues.

Upon hearing the question, the old gentleman immediately understood what it was, also recognized by the voice of Saladin, as he had lived long in his house and he had received thank you very much and favors. Thus, he replied:

'Friend, the first thing I will say is that never have entered my house minstrels like you. Know also that, speaking in righteousness, I must thank all those goods you have received fromBut this shall not tell you more right now until I can talk to you alone, that no one knows nothing of your secret intention. But back to your question, I tell you the best quality of man, the mother and head of all others, is the shame of shame for man suffer death, which is the worst thing that exists, and let shame to do things that seem good, although we would have liked them very much. Therefore, the shame is the beginning and end of all good qualities, and shame us away from vices.

"When Saladin heard this, he realized that the old gentleman was right. Seeing that he had found an answer to your question, he was very cheerful and said goodbye to him and his son, who had been guests. But before leaving the house, spoke to the Sultan the old gentleman and told him how he knew it was Saladin, remember and thank the grants that it had received. Father and son served as they could, but without discovering the other's personality.

'Occur all these things, Saladin decided to return home as soon as possible. When he reached his kingdom, was well received by all, that made him great entertainment and held many celebrations for his coming.

"End of the celebrations, Saladin went to the house of the honorable lady who asked the question. Knowing she approached the Sultan, he received many honors and attended him well in everything he could.

"After eating, Saladin entered her room and told to come to the good lady. She went to him, Saladin told the work had passed to find answers to his question, saying he had already found, and as he could now respond, thus fulfilling what was promised, it should also fulfill their part. She answered that she begged him to remain faithful to his promise and to answer your question first, because if the answer convinced Saladin himself, it would fulfill all their promises.

"Then Saladin replied that he accepted this condition and told him the answer to your previous question, what was the best quality that could be the man, was this: the best quality of man, and she's a mother and head of all virtues, is shame.

When the honest wife heard this, he rejoiced and said to Saladin:

"Sir, I know you speak the truth and that I have fulfilled as promised. Pray tell me, because the king must always tell the truth, if you think there is anyone in the world more fair than you.

Saladin replied that although he was ashamed to admit, as I had to tell the truth as king, believed to be the most honest and fair, not having anything better than him.

"The honorable lady, hearing his words, his knees knelt on the ground and prostrate at his feet and said, weeping bitterly:

"Sir, you say I have just two great truths: first, that you are the most honest and fair in the world, the second, that shame is the most excellent piece that man can have. Well, sir, to you, you know all this and you are the best and kindest world, I ask you please to you the best of qualities, which is shame, and thus give you what you flush asking.

"When Saladin heard those reasons, he understood how that wife, for his kindness and intelligence, was able to avoid committing a serious error, and thanked God. Although the sultan loved her passionately, from that moment wanted more, but loyal and true affection, as must be the virtuous a man who professes to their vassals. Moved by the virtues of this lady, sent back to her husband and gave them both so much honor and riches to his descendants lived very happily.

It happened all for the honesty of that lady and thank her because everyone knew that shame is the best quality of man and at the same time, mother and head of all good qualities.

"For you, Monsieur le Comte, I have asked what is the best quality of man, I reply that it is shame, for shame the man is frank, courageous and upright: for every good deed she does. And rest assured that all things are made more by shame than by desire them. Also shame to a man leaves all the bad things that His will was proposed. Therefore, just as it is very good that man should feel ashamed if you do not owe and stop doing what is right, it is very wrong and very harmful to lose it. You must also know how much misses the point that, having done something shameful, is not ashamed for it, to believe that nobody knows. Be sure there is nothing, however disguised it may seem, it is not known sooner or later. Although, when a man do something embarrassing, do not feel any shame, that same man should think shame will happen when known. And if this is not ashamed, you should feel it for himself, he knows how shameful their actions. If even this is a concern, you should think how unfortunate it is, knowing that if a boy could see what he does, would do so out of shame, but not be afraid or ashamed before God, who knows everything and sees everything, and that will give deserving punishment for their vile actions.

"Sir Count, I have already answered the question I did, and with this reply I have answered the fifty questions that I have done previously. Both have spent time in it that probably many of you are very bored, especially those who may not feel any pleasure in listening or learning something that might be helpful for your soul or body. These will occur as the beasts that are loaded with gold, they feel the weight on their backs and derive no benefit from its value. Thus, bores them what they hear, without taking the lessons it contains. Wherefore I say unto you, partly because of this and partly by the fatigue that I have produced fifty responses I have given, I will not do me more questions, because this story and the following would terminate this book.

The count seemed very good story. On what Patronio said about not wanting to answer further questions, said he would seek some means of it that way.

And as Don Juan saw that this story was very good, ordered to be written in this book and wrote a poem which read:

Works well for shame if you want well done,

shame is the mother of all good living.

Story LI


What happened to a Christian king who was very powerful and very proud

Count again spoke with his counselor Patronio Lucanor and said this:

"Patronio, many tell me that humility is a virtue most pleasing to God, other famous are the humble and despised by people who are considered cowards and poor in spirit, for which the great lords they should be proud. As I'm sure that nobody can know better than you how to be a great lord, I pray you tell me which of these two qualities is more convenient and what I do in this case.

"Sir Count," said Patronio for you to see what is best and most profitable to you, I would really like you to know what happened to a Christian king, who was very powerful and very proud.

The count was asked to be told.

"Sir Count," said Patronio in a country whose name I forget, there lived a king young, rich, powerful and very proud, as astonished all by his pride. In both his pride that he once heard the Magnificat of the Virgin, on hearing the verse that says "powerful Deposuit et exaltavit humiles headquarters," which in Castilian means "God our Lord humbled the mighty and exalted the humble" he felt great sorrow and ordered that his kingdom was erased in that verse to put in place the following: "Et exaltavit powerful in sede et humiles posuit in natus', whose meaning is:" God exalted him to the mighty on their thrones and humbled to the humble ".

"Our Lord felt much this change, because with him saying the opposite of what the Virgin had said in that song, because when she saw Our Lady Mother of the Son of God, who conceived and gave birth to a virgin and without prejudice its purity, to be Mistress of the Heavens and the Earth, said of herself, praising humility above the other virtues: "Quia respexit humilitatem ancillae suae, ecce enim ex hoc omnes Dicent me benedictam Generation", ie "For God, my lord, admired in me humility, call me blessed all generations." And so it was, indeed, for never before or after the Virgin, no woman could be blessed, for it alone, by his virtues, and above all for his humility, earned the titles Mother of God and Queen of the Heaven and Earth, to be placed on the choirs of angels.

"But the proud king was succeededor the opposite, because one day wanted to go to the bathroom and went there with all pomp and a large crowd. To enter the water, had to undress and left his cloak and robe outside the bathroom, so while he bathed the king, God sent an angel to the baths, by the will and desire of the Lord, took the form of King, donned his clothes and was accompanied by all the courtiers way the castle. At the door of the bathhouse were a very humble and old clothes, as worn by the beggars who go from house to house.

The king, who was still swimming, he knew nothing of what had happened. When desired to leave the water, he called his waiters and courtiers, none of whom answered, since everyone had already left, thinking that accompanied the king. When no one answered, the king became very angry and swore he would punish them all with horrible tortures. And feeling humiliated, left the bathroom naked, thinking that one of his bartenders would give him something to wear. He came to the place must have been his companions, but found none and went back to the bath room, searching everywhere without finding anybody.

"Being so very worried and not knowing what to do, he saw the clothes are so poor and old, who were lying in a corner, she thought secretly put them on and go to the Palace to take cruel revenge on those who had mocked and humiliated. Dressed in the clothes, without anyone recognizing him, he went to the castle, the door was guarded by a guard whom the king knew well and was also one of those who had accompanied him a while ago to the baths, when approached him and said very quietly that he opened the door and took him secretly to their rooms, for anyone to see with such poor garments.

The custodian, who was armed with sword and mace, asked who he was because it demonstrated such boldness. The king replied:

"- Ah, traitor! Is not it enough to joke that I've done to me alone and naked in the bathroom and force me to return with these rags? Are not you so and you know I'm not your king, your lord, who have forsaken in the bathhouse? It opens the door before someone comes along who recognized me, because if you do not, assumed to be certain that you Torturaren before being killed.

But the guard replied:

"- Loco, villain! What threats are these? Go your way and say no more follies, otherwise it will give you an example, because the king has long since returned from the baths, and all accompanied him, also has eaten and is resting now, so do not be angry, because you could wake him.

"When the king heard this, thought it was for continuing the joke and full of shame and rage, attacked him, trying to tear his hair. The guards repulsed the attack but did not want to hurt the club, although he took a big hit with the handle, so the king began to bleed from many parts of the head. The king, feeling hurt and see that the guard had sword and mace, while he had no weapons or to attack or to defend themselves, and believing that the soldier was crazy, so it could kill him if he kept insisting he decided to go home his butler and hide there until his wounds heal. He thought that, once recovered, would take revenge on those who had humiliated and mocked.

"When I got home from her butler, had worse luck with the palace guard, so it also decided to move away quickly.

"He turned, in the most secret home of his wife, the queen, believing that all these misfortunes had befallen him because his subjects did not recognize him, which certainly could not happen with the queen, his wife. When I was told that he was king and he had been beaten by guards, the Queen thought that if the true king, whom she believed in her house, came to know that had listened to his words, be angry a lot and therefore ordered that crazy beat and kicked out of his house, for demonstrating so boldly before her.

The poor king, when he was so ill he did not know what to do and went to a hospital, where he spent many days to heal their wounds. When he was hungry, he would ask from house to house people mocked and taunted him, telling him how, as the king of that land was so poor. As everyone said it and repeated it so often, he came to believe he was crazy and that his madness had led him to believe the king. In this way he lived much time thinking that I had an all too frequent madness that is the belief that one is different than it looks or living in a state of greater dignity.

"While the king in such a sad state, God, who always wants the repentance of sinners and, therefore, find them a way for their salvation, which is only away by his own fault, he had that unfortunate, how poor and looked humiliated because of his pride, began to think that all his misfortunes were a punishment for their sins, especially his pride, which had led him to change the verse of the canticle of the Virgin. When the king saw this, began to feel in his heart so much remorse and regret that no one could say with words so that weighed more offending Our Lord to the loss of his kingdom and, although I saw his body lacerated and humiliated, he did nothing but mourn and ask God for forgiveness for their sins and grace to his soul. Such was his pain that never occurred to him to ask God to give him back his throne or his dignity, for all that he had it on very little and just wanted the forgiveness of their sins and the salvation of his soul.

"Believe me, sir earl, who, of all make pilgrimages, giving alms, or fast, or offer prayers, or do good works that God gives them, save them or they should enhance the physical health, their honor or wealth, I do not I say who do evil. Yes I say, however, that if all these good deeds made only for forgiveness of their sins and the grace of God, which are achieved by good works, made with pure intention and without hypocrisy, I would be much better , for surely reach forgiveness and the grace of God, who only wants the sinner to repent and live in humility and true repentance for his sins.

"So when the king repented, was forgiven by the mercy of God who, in his infinite goodness, not only pardoned him but also gave him his kingdom and his condition satisfactorily. It happened like this:

'The angel, who took his place and had the shape of the king, called a guard and said:

" 'I have been told that a madman running around claiming to be king of these lands and other similar follies What kind of person he is and what does it say?

"It so happened that the guard was the one who had beaten the king the same day it came out of the bathroom naked. As the angel, whom everyone had the king asked him to tell him everything related to the madman, the guard told him what all the people laughed and mocked him, hearing the nonsense he was saying. The king, after hearing, ordered him to go and fetch him and bring him to the palace. When the king, whom everyone was mad, he reached the presence of the angel, who was taking the place of the king, they went to a secluded place and the angel said:

'Friend, I am told you are going around saying that you are king of this land and you have lost the kingdom do not know what misfortune or calamity. I pray for the faith you owe to God, I contéis how all this is, hiding nothing, because I promise you that nothing will happen.

"When the unfortunate king who lived like crazy and was so unhappy, he heard him say it to who was king, did not know what to say, because some thought he was asking for pumping him and if he said it was the king , would send him to kill. Thus began mourn bitterly and replied, as someone who was very concerned:

"Sir, I do not know how they will respond to what you say, but like the life I lead and I feel like death and God knows that I no longer expect nor honors nor riches, I will not conceal anything you really feel. I tell you, sir, that I'm crazy and that all I have for that, treating me like a mad long. And though one might be wrong, if I was not crazy, not everyone could be wrong, good and bad, rich and poor, lists and foolish, but though I see all this as I understand, I really think I was king of this ground and lost the kingdom and grace of God for my sins, especially my pride and arrogance.

'Then he told the king with great sadness and many tears what had happened, the change he made in the words of the canticle of the Virgin, and also all their sins. When the angel, whom God had sent to take his picture and go through every king before he realized that he felt more sorry for the sins he had committed as the loss of the throne, he answered God's command:

'Friend, I tell you everything you tell the truth, because you were king of this land, but our Lord God took the kingdom for the same reasons you say, and sent me, I'm one of his angels, for take your figure and was in your place. The Lord's mercy is infinite and only seeks the sinner to repent and live, has shown with this miracle the two necessary conditions for the repentance is true: there is a genuine desire not to sin and repentance be sincere. As God saw that you are given these conditionsHe has forgiven you and sent me back to me that you replace your figure and you on your throne. I pray and I advise you to observe, especially the sin of pride, because this is the most abhorrent to God our Lord, as it goes against his power and majesty, and makes men lose their soul. Be assured you have never seen a nation, family, class or person who was a slave of pride and has not been broken down or punished.

When the king, whom everyone took for a madman, he heard these words the angel, knelt before him, weeping bitterly and believing everything he said, worshiped him as God's messenger, asking him not to leave until all were gathered and made public this miracle God had wrought in him. So did the angel. When all were together, spoke the king and told them what had happened. Then the angel said, confirming the story of King and was an angel in the eyes of all.

Then the king made numerous and frequent penance and, among other things, he ordered all his kingdom, to avenge the Virgin, with golden letters write verse of the Magnificat, which even today still do, as I hear. Completed its mission, the angel returned to heaven and sat the king and his people very happy and very happy. In the years since then lived, King served very well to God and his people, doing good and important works to his subjects, for which shot to fame in this world and eternal life in the other, we all want to get a favor of God.

"And you, Sir Count, if you get the grace of God and good reputation in this world, do good works, which are well done, without duplicity or hypocrisy, and all the ills of the world beware, especially of pride , and be humble without false piety or simulations. Keep in mind the humility, but always keeping decorum of your own state, so that ye may be humble, but not humbled or humiliated by anyone. The powerful and arrogant you can not find shameful humility or diffidence, and those who are humble before you must always found it full of humility and good works.

The count was very pleased with this advice and asked God to give him strength to follow and implement it.

And as Don Juan he was very pleased this story, sent it to write this book and wrote these verses as follows:

For the righteous and humble, God's praises:

who are proud, he refuses.

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