Between 1814-1815 the powers that defeated Napoleon (United Kingdom, Austria, Prussia, and Russia) met at the Congress of Vienna, with two objectives:
- Restore the old regime
They returned to their thrones the monarchs that Napoleon had deposed.
- Rebuild the political map of Europe
France returned to its limits of 1791 and the territories were divided, without counting on some towns.
It was agreed to convene congresses, where diplomatically conflicts between countries would be resolved and intervention was authorized in those countries threatened by a revolution.
- Two alliances were created to ensure the established order:
- The Holy Alliance formed by Austria, Russia, and Prussia
- The Quadruple Alliance formed by Austria, Russia, Prussia, and United Kingdom
Absolutism did not prevent the expansion of new ideologies in Europe, represented by liberalism and nationalism.
- Liberalism defended individual freedom, recognizing the rights of citizens, equality under the law, and abolishing privileges. Implementing constitutional regimes based on national sovereignty and the separation of powers.
This ideology spread among the bourgeoisie and the popular classes.
- Nationalism defended the life of the people is the nation, with a common history, culture, and language. Each nation had its state and its borders.