Concept of education

Classified in Geography

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1.5. Enlightened despotism

• It aimed to combine absolute monarchy (despotism) with Enlightenment ideas in order To modernise the country and improve people’s wellbeing. • Enlightened despots (déspotas ilustrados / monarcas) had the following characteristics: – they maintained their absolute power through centralised governments that Implemented their policies. – they appointed enlightened thinkers to important positions, for example as Royal ministers. – they tried to make changes peacefully, through reforms and education. • Examples of enlightened despots include: – Catherine the Great of Russia. – Joseph II of Austria. – Frederick II of Prussia. – Charles III of Spain. • These monarchs implemented reforms: – the unification of the legal system. – the modernisation of the army. – the promotion of agriculture, industry and education. • Enlightened despotism ultimately failed as a form of government because it maintained The privileges of the estates system, and did not introduce reforms to make all people Free and equal before the law.

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