Concept of education

Classified in History

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  • Nation-state was not how political Communities were organized – nationalism is only 200 years old.

(ancient Greece city-states, ancient Indian republics and kingdoms, European monarchs/dynasties in feudal Kingdoms)

  • Little agreement among writers on the Exact meaning of ‘nationalism’.

  • Nationalism: The belief that a Group of people are united by a common history, tradition, language And culture, and hence they should establish a sovereign political Community of their own – nation.

  • Ideology/movement that seeks to Establish a nation-state.

  • Belief that the nation is the primary Focus of loyalty, the sole object of people’s allegiance.

  • Sense of loyalty that makes people to Live and work within the modern state, even die for the state in Wars, etc.

  • Hans Kohn: “Nationalism Demands the Nation-State; the creation of the Nation-State Strengthens nationalism.”

  • Nation: thus refers to a Close-knit political community with a a shared history and a Culturally, linguistically, ethnically or even racially homogenous Population.

    • However, no country today satisfies These criteria strictly.

    • Max Weber: Nation is a community Of sentiment which would adequately manifest itself in a State of Its own.

  • The terms ‘nation’ and ‘state’ Are used synonymously – due to the belief that every community of People that think of themselves as a nation should also have a state Of their own.

    • Political centralization was Brought about with the rise of Absolutist monarchs (Tudor Dynasty in England, Bourbon dynasty in France) and the weakening and Collapse of horizontal + vertical challenges by the 16th Century:

      • Feudal (vertical) forces:

        • Merchant capitalism emerged.

        • Monarchs’ dependence on taxation From feudal agrarian production and vassals reduced.

        • They consolidated political power with The help of the emerging merchant classes.

        • Capitalism eventually replaced Feudalism.

      • Religious (horizontal) forces: Religious reformation of the 15th century dealt a Heavy blow to the power of the Catholic Church.

    • Monarchs were now able to exercise ‘absolute’ power – establish direct, effective and Comprehensive rule over the entire population.

      • Strict enforcement of territorial Boundaries

      • Standardization of population through Religion, education, language

      • Maintenance of standing armies

      • Stricter rules of residence and Mobility for citizens

      • Advancements in transport and Communication – these political aims could be achieved more Effectively.

    • Formation of the earliest form of Modern state (absolutist state) having sovereignty, government, Fixed territory – however, it was ruled by the pre-modern Institution of monarchy.

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