Coh3 chemical name

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The process that plants carry out in the presence of radiant energy in order to create their food is known as photosynthesis.

Chlorophyll is a chemical that is found in most of the plants and imparts green color to them. The process of photosynthesis actually becomes possible due to the chlorophyll that is present in plant leaves. During this process of food generation, the following reaction takes place:

6 CO2 + 6 H2O → (in the presence of sunlight) C6H12O6 + 6 O2

Plant photosynthesis occurs in leaves and green stems within specialized cell structures called chloroplasts. One plant leaf is composed of tens of thousands of cells, and each cell contains 40 to 50 chloroplasts. The chloroplast, an oval-shaped structure, is divided by membranes into numerous disk-shaped compartments. These disklike compartments, called thylakoids, are arranged vertically in the chloroplast like a stack of plates or pancakes. A stack of thylakoids is called a granum (plural, grana); the grana lie suspended in a fluid known as stroma.

Embedded in the membranes of the thylakoids are hundreds of molecules of chlorophyll, a light-trapping pigment required for photosynthesis. Additional light-trapping pigments, enzymes (organic substances that speed up chemical reactions), and other molecules needed for photosynthesis are also located within the thylakoid membranes. The pigments and enzymes are arranged in two types of units, Photosystem I and Photosystem II. Because a chloroplast may have dozens of thylakoids, and each thylakoid may contain thousands of photosystems, each chloroplast will contain millions of pigment molecules.

  1. Glycolysis. In glycolysis, glucose—a six-carbon sugar—undergoes a series of chemical transformations. In the end, it gets converted into two molecules of pyruvate, a three-carbon organic molecule. In these reactions, ATP is made, and \text{NAD}^+NAD+N, A, D, start superscript, plus, end superscript is converted to \text{NADH}NADHN, A, D, H.
  2. Pyruvate oxidation. Each pyruvate from glycolysis goes into the mitochondrial matrix—the innermost compartment of mitochondria. There, it’s converted into a two-carbon molecule bound to Coenzyme A, known as acetyl CoA. Carbon dioxide is released and \text{NADH}NADHN, A, D, H is generated.
  3. Citric acid cycle. The acetyl CoA made in the last step combines with a four-carbon molecule and goes through a cycle of reactions, ultimately regenerating the four-carbon starting molecule. ATP, \text{NADH}NADHN, A, D, H, and \text{FADH}_2FADH2F, A, D, H, start subscript, 2, end subscriptare produced, and carbon dioxide is released.
  4. Oxidative phosphorylation. The \text{NADH}NADHN, A, D, H and \text{FADH}_2FADH2F, A, D, H, start subscript, 2, end subscript made in other steps deposit their electrons in the electron transport chain, turning back into their "empty" forms (\text{NAD}^+NAD+N, A, D, start superscript, plus, end superscript and \text{FAD}FADF, A, D). As electrons move down the chain, energy is released and used to pump protons out of the matrix, forming a gradient. Protons flow back into the matrix through an enzyme called ATP synthase, making ATP. At the end of the electron transport chain, oxygen accepts electrons and takes up protons to form water.

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