Cities in Antiquity, Middle Ages, Modern Age, and Developing Countries

Classified in Geography

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Cities in Antiquity

7000 years ago/ China, India, Middle East/around palace-market-temple/defense wall

Greek people = polis/2 main urban areas acropolis (high) agora (public square)

5th century = grid plan

Rome = regular plan/around square-forum/2 main roads (cardo-decumanus)/ facilities (pipes-paved roads-sewers)

Cities in Middle Ages

Islamic people = irregular plan/narrow streets/medina = walled city with main buildings/around medina = commercial neighborhoods

Christian people = 12th century/walled city/irregular/central part = church

Cities in Modern Age

Europe = growth/geometric forms dom/rational distribution/forts evolved

Industrial Cities

18-19th century/industrial rev (Europe/North America)/major cities growth/working class neighborhoods = no planning & facilities/bad hygiene/overcrowding/defense walls = demolished/restructuring/bourgeoisie = new residential neighborhoods

Modern Cities

20th century/industrial model spread/population increase/pollution, traffic, housing/satellite cities

World Metropolises

Major cities' activity repercutes worldwide/highly populated/influence other countries

National Metropolises

State-country capitals

Regional Metropolises

Communications-main services converge

Small-Medium Sized Cities

Influence on town around/provincial capitals

Regular Urban Network

Evenly distributed/territories connected/exchange fluidity/national-international metropolises

Concentrated Urban Network

Around major metropolis/balanced in developed countries/national services concentrated in big city

Metropolitan Area

Large city-metropolis & towns around it


Result of 2+ cities merged together/each city has administrative independence


Vast urban area beyond regional level/different metropolitan areas-conurbations merge

Urbanization (mostly) began in 19th century

Nowadays: big city = slow growth/medium-sized = increase

Outskirts & Peri-Urban Areas

Industrial states = factory complexes/alongside transport routes & working-class neighborhoods

Shopping center = area dedicated to sell goods/alongside major roads = easier to reach

Residential suburbs = neighborhoods connected to the center by major road/different economic & social groups/economic elite = single-family houses low blocks/working-class = lower quality, medium height

City's Centre

Old town = old part

CBD (Central Business District) = modern skyscraper/population density in working hours/economic-financial center

Residential neighborhoods = ensanches or newly built ones/medium height

Cities in Developing Countries

Urbanization has accelerated & big rural part has moved to cities


Concentrate people in large urban agglomerations that concentrate all the activities

Strong contrasts between social elite and vast slums

Housing deficit and public services

Pros of Urban Life

Educational & cultural activities/more opportunities for specialized studies

Centers of trade = more variety

Healthcare is more accessible

Extensive labor market = more job offers

Wide leisure options

Ideas merge and cultures combine

Cons of Urban Life

Enormous amounts of water and energy

Large amounts of solid and water waste

Traffic jams and traffic problems

Pollution and smog

High prices = depressed areas with few facilities

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