Chemical Bonding and Organic Chemistry

Classified in Chemistry

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Measure of the tendency of an atom to attract bonding pair of electrons.


Ion that has a positive charge.

Ionic Bond

Chemical bond formed between two ions with opposite charge.


Ion that has a negative charge.

Chemical Bond

Electrical attraction between nuclei and valence electrons that binds atoms together.

Covalent Bond

Bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons.

Non Polar Bond

Type of chemical bond where two atoms share a pair of electrons with each other.


Uneven distribution of charge.

Polar Bond

Type of chemical bond where a pair of electrons is unequally shared between two atoms.


Neutral group of atoms that are held together by covalent bonds.

Molecular Compound

Chemical compound whose simplest units are molecules.

Chemical Formula

Combination of chemical symbol and numbers to represent a substance.

Molecular Formula

Chemical formula that shows number and kind of atom in a molecule but not its arrangement.

Bond Energy

Energy required to break a chemical bond and form neutral isolated bonds.

Electron Dot Notation

Electron configuration in which only the valence electrons of an atom of a particular element are shown, indicated by dots.

Lewis Structure

Structure formula in which electrons are represented by dots.

Structural Formula

Formula that indicates the number/location of chemical bonds.

Single Bond

Covalent bond in which two atoms share one pair of electrons.

Multiple Bonds

Bond in which the atoms share more than a pair of electrons such as a double or triple bond.

Ionic Compound

Compound composed of ions bound together by electrostatic attraction.

Formula Unit

Simplest collection of atoms from which an ionic compound formula can be written.

Polyatomic Ion

An ion made of two or more atoms.

Metallic Bonding

Forces of attraction between a metal ion and valence electrons that are constantly moving around them.


The ability of a substance to be hammered or beaten into a sheet.


Ability of a substance to be hammered into a wire.

VSEPR Theory

Theory that predicts some molecular shapes based on the idea that pairs of valence electrons surrounding an atom repel each other.

Organic Chemistry

The study of chemistry involving living systems, particularly involving carbon.


Composed of carbon and hydrogen, simplest organic compounds.


Hydrocarbon that contains one or more double bonds.


Hydrocarbon that has a straight or branched carbon chain that contains single bonds.


Hydrocarbon that contains one or more triple bonds.


Functional group that derives from alkanes having one less hydrogen.

Cyclic Hydrocarbons

A compound composed only of carbon and hydrogen that forms a ring.

Monatomic Ion

Ion formed from a single atom.

Binary Compound

A compound composed of two or more atoms.


Naming binary, ionic compounds with transition metals and polyatomic atoms.

Oxidation Number

Number assigned to an element in chemical combination.

Oxidation State

The condition of an atom represented by the number of electrons needed to reach its elemental form.

Empirical Formula

Chemical formula that gives the simplest whole number ratio of atoms in a compound.

Organic Compound

Covalently bonded compound that contains carbon, excluding carbonates and oxides.


Compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structures.

Structural Formula

Formula that indicates the numbers and types of atoms present in a molecule and also shows the bonding arrangements of atoms.

Structural Isomer

Isomers in which the atoms are bonded together in different orders.

Geometric Isomer

A compound that exists in two or more geometrically different configurations.

Saturated Hydrocarbon

Organic compound formed only by carbon and hydrogen linked by single bonds.

Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbon that has available valence bonds with carbon.

Aromatic Hydrocarbon

Hydrocarbon that contains 6 carbon rings, with 3 double bonds.

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