Cellular and Tissue Organization: From Organelles to Organ Systems

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Cellular and Tissue Organization


  • Mitochondria: Produces energy
  • Vesicles: Transport and digestion of substances
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum:
    • Rough: Synthesis and modification of proteins
    • Smooth: No attached ribosomes, synthesis of lipids
  • Golgi Body or Apparatus: Processing and packaging of substances, secretory vesicles
  • Ribosomes: Protein synthesis
  • Centrosomes: Involved in cell division
  • Cilia and Flagella: Movement
  • Cytoskeleton: Maintains cell shape, movement of cell structures

Human Tissue

  • Epithelia:
    • Covering Epithelia: Epidermis, mucous membrane, endothelia
    • Glandular Epithelia: Salivary glands, pancreas, thyroid
  • Connective: Bone, adipose, cartilage, dense connective, blood
  • Muscle: Smooth muscle, skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle
  • Nervous: Neurons, glial cells


Group of tissues that work together to perform a specific function or action. Examples: heart, skin, muscles.

Organ Systems

Group of organs that work together to perform one or more functions. Grouped by function: nutrition, interaction, reproduction.


  • Digestive System: The digestive tube and accessory glands. Obtains nutrients from food.
  • Respiratory System: The respiratory tract and lungs. Gas exchange with the blood provides oxygen and eliminates carbon dioxide.
  • Circulatory System: The heart, blood, and blood vessels. Distributes blood, delivering nutrients and collecting harmful substances.
  • Excretory System: The kidneys, urinary tract, and other organs. Eliminates waste substances produced by cellular metabolism.


  • Nervous System: Main organs: brain, spinal cord, nerves. Receives information from the environment and sends nerve impulses in response.
  • Endocrine System: Endocrine glands produce hormones that act on specific cells and organs.
  • Musculoskeletal System: Muscles and bones work together for locomotion.
    • Muscular System: Skeletal muscle enables locomotion, movements, and posture.
    • Skeletal System: Bones provide strength, stiffness, and protection.


  • Male Reproductive System: Produces sperm and male sex hormones.
  • Female Reproductive System: Produces eggs and female sex hormones. Hosts the developing fetus until birth.

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