Cellular Processes and Energy Production

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21) Osmosis can be defined as

the diffusion of water.

22) A cell that neither gains nor loses water when it is immersed in a solution is

isotonic to its environment.

23) Which of the following processes can move a solute against its concentration gradient?

active transport

24) Which of the following is a typical feature of an ATP-driven active transport mechanism?

The solute moves against the concentration gradient.

25) The process of a white blood cell engulfing a bacterium is


26) Which of the following examples is classified as a metabolic pathway?

protein synthesis

27) Which of the following most accurately describes selective permeability?

Only certain molecules can cross a cell membrane.

28) Which of the following would likely move through the lipid bilayer of a plasma membrane most rapidly?


29) Which of the following allows water to move much faster across cell membranes?


30) A sodium-potassium pump _____.

move three sodium ions out of a cell and two potassium ions into a cell while consuming an ATP for each cycle

31) The sodium-potassium pump is called an electrogenic pump because it _____.

contributes to the membrane potential

32) The voltage across a membrane is called the _____.

membrane potential

33) Ions diffuse across membranes through specific ion channels down _____.

their electrochemical gradients

34) The term anaerobic means

without O2.

35) How do cells capture the energy released by cellular respiration?

They produce ATP.

36) Respiration ________, and cellular respiration ________.

is gas exchange . . . produces ATP

37) Which of the following are products of cellular respiration?

energy to make ATP and carbon dioxide

38) Oxidation is the ________, and reduction is the ________.

loss of electrons . . . gain of electrons

39) Which of the following options lists the stages in cellular respiration in the correct order?

glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation

40) In glycolysis, for each molecule of glucose oxidized to pyruvate _____.

two molecules of ATP are used and four molecules of ATP are produced.

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