Cell Structures and Functions

Classified in Biology

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Metre: mm = 10-3, hm = 10-6, nm = 10-9

Plasma Membrane

The plasma membrane is partially permeable and contains the exchange of materials.


Chromatin is a mass of chromosomes during nuclear division, which is the material of which chromosomes are made.


The nucleolus is a small structure, one or more inside the nucleus. Its function is to manufacture ribosomes.


Protoplasm refers to all the living material inside the cell.


Cytoplasm refers to the contents of a cell excluding the nucleus.


The mitochondrion is the organelle in eukaryotes where aerobic respiration takes place.

Cell Wall

The cell wall gives the cell a definite shape and prevents the cell from bursting when water enters by osmosis.


Vacuoles are sac-like structures which are surrounded by a single membrane. They control the exchange between the vacuole and cytoplasm.


Plasmodesma is a pore-like structure found in plant cell walls that controls the passage of material from one cell to another.


The tonoplast is the partially permeable membrane surrounding the vacuole.


Chloroplasts are organelles surrounded by an envelope in which photosynthesis takes place.


Microvilli are small finger-like extensions of a cell that increase the surface area of the cell. They are useful for reabsorption.

Nuclear Envelope

The nucleus is surrounded by two membranes: the nuclear envelope and the outer membrane. It has small pores called nuclear pores that allow control and exchange between the nucleus and cytoplasm.

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