What causes the so called night effect

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1 Inside The larynx there are two flaps of muscle which are called the vocal or folds

vocal cords.

2 The space Between them is known as the glottis.

-wide Glottis /p/ /f/ /s/

- narrow Glottis /h/

-vocal Folds’ vibration

-tigtitly Closed ?  -when we cough

Producing sounds              air---stop the flow of air—move to Articulators—produce release

3 When they Are tightly closed they can be made to produce a glottal stop.

4 When they Are close together and air is passed between them, the resulting vibration is Called voicing or phonation.

5 Three Variables in this vibration that are relevant in speech are: intensity: high/low levels, frequency amount Vibration/regularity, quality whispering/breathy.

1 When a Word is written with phonetic symbols we say it is transcribed.

2 The Sounds of spoken language are divided into two basic types vowels and consonants.

3 Many Phonemes may be pronounced (“realised”) in more than one way; these different Realisations are called allophones.

4 We can Add marks to phonetic symbols to provide more information about them. These Marks are called diacritics.

5 Putting Two dots over a vowel symbol, as in ä, indicates centralization.

6 The Symbols that we use are based on the Alphabet of the International Phonetic Association.

7 A phonetic Transcription that gives a lot of detail is called a narrow Transcription.

8 When we Consider two related sounds in a relationship where one of them can only occur Where the other cannot occur, we say that the sounds are in complementary Distribution.

9 In the Study of suprasegmental phonology, the difference between ˈimport and imˈport Is a difference in stress.

10 The Difference between saying ‘yes’ on a rising pitch movement and on a falling Pitch movement is a difference of pitch.

11segment: (phoneme) division of every sound pot - /p-o-t/

12Plosives Classified:

Voiced (when There is vibration in a word) lenis b,d,g (weak)

Voiceless (when There is little vibration in a word) fortis t,k,p (strong)

13The Shortening effect occur when a vowel (short or long) or diphthongs Is followed by a consonant. Steal, Speak, Ski

Plosive: Explosion of air

Aspiration: Air when producing the plosion. Initial and final position

/ka:r/ /pet/

14Phases Of plosives:

closing Phase: movement of the articulator

compression Phase: holding of the air

release phase: Articular moves to allow the air to escape

post-release Phase

15When Are fortis unaspirated

1 when the Fortis is after the consonant s

2. When the Fortis is in final position

3.  When there are two fortis together

Phonemic Transcription:


Ejemplo Allophones

Que Significa cada mark



Lugares de Articulacion



Continuous-air-hissing Sound


Morfemas: Unidades de lenguaje qu

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