The Caliphate of Córdoba and the Emirate of Córdoba
The Caliphate of Córdoba was an Andalusian Muslim state with its capital in Córdoba, proclaimed by Abderramán III. The Emirate of Córdoba was an independent emirate with its capital also in Córdoba.
The Black Death
The Black Death has been one of the most devastating pandemics in human history. It affected Europe in the 14th century and peaked between 1347 and 1353, killing more than a third of the European population. The Black Death had an extremely high mortality in Europe because people lived closely together without any type of hygiene in the most affected areas. The plague spread from Italy throughout Europe, affecting territories of present-day France, Spain, England, Britain, Germany, Hungary, the Scandinavian peninsula, and Russia.
The Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa and the Conquest of the Iberian Peninsula
In the early 13th century, the Christians created a large army in which several kingdoms participated. They achieved a great victory over the Almohads in the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa and conquered all of the Iberian Peninsula except for Granada.