5th Slide: Hendrik Verwoerd , who became prime minister in 1958, would refine apartheid policy further into a system he referred to as ``separate development´´. Separating black South Africans from each other enabled the government to claim there was no black majority.
A system that supposedly gave them full political rights, but effectively removed them from the nation´s political body.
6th Slide: Resistance to apartheid within South Africa took many forms over the years. Violent demonstrations, protests and strikes to political action and eventually to armed resistance. The South Indian National Congress, the ANC organized a mass meeting in 1952, during which attendees burned their pass books. Congress of the people adopted a Freedom Charter in 1955 asserting that ``South Africa belongs to all who live in it, black or white.´´ The government broke up the meeting and arrested 150 people, charging them with high treason
7th Slide: In 1960, at the black township of Sharpesville, the police opened fire on a group of unarmed blacks associated with the Pan-African Congress (PAC), an offshoot of the ANC. The group had arrived at the police station without passes, inviting arrest as an act of resistance. At least 67 blacks were killed and more than 180 wounded. Sharpesville convinced many anti-apartheid leaders that they could not archive their objectives by peaceful means, and both the PAC and ANC established military wings, neither of which ever poised a serious military threat to the state. By 1961, most resistance leaders had been captured and sentence to long prison terms or executed. Nelson Mandela, a founder of Umkhonto we Sizwe (``Spear of the Nation´´), the military wing of the ANC, was incarcerated from 1963 to 1990; his imprisonment would draw international attention and help garner support for the anti-apartheid cause.
8th Slide: The United Nations General Assembly had denounced apartheid in 1973, and in 1976 the UN Security Council voted to impose a mandatory embargo on the sale of arms to South Africa. In 1985, the United Kingdom and United States imposed economic sanctions on the country.