8. How did the dictatorship of Primo d Rivera end?
Little by little, opposition to the dictatorship of Primo d Rivera, who resigned in January
1930, increased. Actually, there was an attempt of coup d’état in Jaca on 12th December
1930. Later, local elections were called, which were held on 12th April 1931 and led to the
triumph of the Republicans. Alfonso XIII suspended the royal authority and left the country.
On 14th April 1931, the Second Republic was proclaimed.
10. What political principles did the 1931 Constitution include?
● Universal suffrage: for the first time the right to vote for women was recognized in our
country, one of the steps towards their legal equalization to men.
● A secular state: allowing civil marriage and divorce.
● A wide range of public and private freedoms.
● Division of Powers: The Legislative power resided in the Parliament and the Executive in
the Council of Ministers and the President of the Republic. The independence of the
Judiciary was affirmed.
11. Name the reforms that were undertaken during the Bienio Reformista.
1. A process of decentralization of the State, which recognized the existence of historical
nationalities with their own language and identity and the possibility of drawing up their
Statutes of Autonomy.
2. An active cultural and educational policy was seen as something essential for the
modernization of the country. Important was the incorporation of women to the teaching
profession and to the rural environment.
3. The separation of Church and State.
4. The agrarian reform. In some areas of Spain, land ownership was concentrated in a small
number of owners while thousands of day laborers lived in extreme poverty. In response to
this situation, large farms were distributed among the peasants.
16. Explain the stages of the Conflict
A. August 1936 - March 1937. The Battle of Madrid: The rebellious forces began the
advance towards Madrid. After occupying Extremadura and Toledo, they were located near
the capital, but the offensive was stopped by the Republicans; attempts to enter failed after
the battles of Guadalajara and the River Jarama.
B. April - November 1937. The Battle for the North: after the aerial bombing of Guernica on
27th April 1937 by the Condor Legion, the rebels occupied Bilbao, Santander and Asturias,
despite the republican offensives of La Granja, Brunete and Belchite to reduce pressure.
C. December 1937 - February 1938. The Battle of Teruel: a remodeled republican army
deployed offensives in provincial capitals, highlighting that of Teruel, witness of a terrible
D. January 1938 - April 1939. From the Battle of the Ebro to the end of the War: the
Francoists advanced on Aragon and reached the Mediterranean, leaving Catalonia isolated.
To prevent the advance of the rebels, the Republic launched the offensive of the Battle of the
Ebro (July - November 1938). After hard fighting the Republicans withdrew and the
rebellious advance could not be stopped, Catalonia falling into the hands of Franco. On
February 1939, only Madrid and the central zone remained in republican hands, finally
occupied by the rebels. On 1 st April 1939, the Conflict ended.
17. Wat were te consequences of te War?
Te War left a devastating number of casualties (500,000 dead), not only on te battlefields
but also among te civilian population. Te famine weakened te population, wile
tousands of refugees, especiayy xildren, ad to abandon teir omes before te advance
of te Francoists. Wen it was over, a large number of exiles left te country.
At ay times, atrocities were committed by bot parties and te division generated a deep
fracture in Spanis society, stiy not overcome.
18. Wat regime was implemented in Spain after te War? Wat were its
After is victory in te Civil War, General Francisco Franco imposed a fascist regime, in
wix ay democratic guarantees were suppressed. Tis political model was based on te
figure of Caudiyo, wo concentrated ay te powers and eld te leadersip of a single party.
e always ad te support of te army, and te Catolic xurx. Te big landlord and
industrial bourgeoisie was its social piyar.
Te freedoms would be suppressed and any movement of opposition to te dictatorsip
arsly repressed wit various mexanisms: imprisonment, labor purges, concentration
camps and executions. Many Republicans decided to go into exile after te war, to France or
Latin America, for fear of reprisals. Tere were also republican groups, known as maquis,
wix remained idden in mountain areas in te ope tat te fay of te Franco’s regime
would take place.
26. Ow is te division of powers regulated?
Its division of Powers is te next:
A. Te Legislative is in te ands of te Central Parliament, made up of te Congress of
Deputies and te Senate, as wey as te Autonomous Parliaments.
B. Te Executive is exerted by te Central Government, constituted by te President and te
Ministers, in addition to te Autonomous, Provincial and Local Governments.
C. Te Judiciary is carried out by te General Council of te Judiciary, and te Constitutional
29. Wat model of government was consolidated in Spain and wit wat two parties?
In 1982 new elections were cayed. Te UCD graduayy disappeared and Alianza Popular,
later cayed Partido Popular, consolidated itself as te main opposition party. Te Communist
party ended up giving rise to Izquierda Unida. Little by little te two-party model was
consolidated, alternating between te PSOE and te PP in government. At te ead of te
successive governments ave been: Felipe Gonzalez (PSOE), Jose Maria Aznar (PP); Jose
Luis Rodriguez Zapatero (PSOE), Mariano Rajoy (PP), and Pedro Sanxez (PSOE), te
current president of te government.
33. Wat do we cay autarxy? Wix consequences did it ave? Wat ended tat
Te economic policy of te Franco’s regime in 1939-1959 was supported by a strong
intervention of te State tat controyed te production of goods and teir commercialization;
and in autarxy or self-suffi100cy, limiting imports given te isolation to wix Spain was subjected. Yet, tis route did not axieve economic recovery, due to te lack of raw materials and energy sources, or te absence of foreign investment.