The Art of Persuasion and Informative Speaking

Classified in Philosophy and ethics

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Persuasion: the process of influencing people’s attitudes, beliefs, values, or behaviors

Persuasive Speaking

Persuasive speaking: in a speech


Argument: articulating a position with the support of logos, ethos, and pathos


Logos: a means of persuasion in which you construct logical arguments that support your point of view


Ethos: a means of persuasion in which you argue that your competence, credibility, and good character should persuade others to accept your point of view


Pathos: a means of persuasion in which you appeal to the emotions of others so that they accept your point of view


Reasoning: the mental process of making an argument by drawing inferences from factual information to reach a conclusion

Inductive Reasoning

Inductive reasoning: arriving at a conclusion based on a series of pieces of evidence

Deductive Reasoning

Deductive reasoning: arriving at a conclusion based on a major premise and minor premise

Major Premise

Major premise: a general principle that most people agree upon

Minor Premise

Minor premise: a specific point that fits within the major premise


Syllogism. The three-part form of deductive reasoning


Support: the reason or evidence the speaker offers as the grounds for accepting the conclusion


Warrant: the logical statement that connects the support to the claim

Types of Argument

  • Argue from sing: to cite information that signals the claim
  • Argue from example: to support your claim by providing one or more individual examples
  • Argue from analogy: to support a claim with a single comparable example that is significantly similar to the subject to claim
  • Argue from causation: to cite events that have occurred that result in the claim


  • Hasty generalization: a fallacy that presents a generalization that is either not supported with evidence or is supported with only one weak example
  • False cause: a fallacy that occurs when the alleged cause fails to be related to, or to produce the effect
  • Either-or: a fallacy that argues there are only two alternatives when in fact there are many
  • Straw man: a fallacy that occurs when a speaker weakens the opposing position by misrepresenting it and then attacks that weaker position
  • Ad hominem: a fallacy that occurs when a speaker attacks or praises a person making an argument rather than addressing the argument itself


Goodwill: a perception the audience forms of a speaker who they believe understands them, empathizes with them, and is responsive to them


  • Synonym: a word that has the same or a similar meaning
  • Antonym: a word that is directly opposite in meaning

Informative Speaking

Informative speech: a speech whose goal is to explain or describe facts, truths, and principles in a way that stimulates interest

Intellectually Stimulating

Intellectually stimulating: information that is new to audience members and is explained in a way that piques their curiosity

Methods of Informing

  • Definition: a method of informing that explains something by identifying its meaning
  • Narration: a method of informing that explains something by recounting events
  • Demonstration: a method of informing that explains something by showing how it is done

Process Speech Framework

Process speech framework: a speech that explains and shows how something is done, is made, or works

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