Ancient Greece: Key Concepts and Figures

Classified in History

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ephor-one of the five men elected each year in ancient Sparta who were responsible for the education of youth and the conduct of all citizens./epic poem-a long poem that tells the deeds of a great hero./Epicureanism-school of thought developed by the philosopher Epicurus in Hellenistic Athens; it taught that happiness is the chief goal in life, and the means to achieve happiness was the pursuit of pleasure./Eratosthenes-important astronomer during the Hellenistic Age that determined that Earth was round and calculated Earth's circumference within 185 miles./ethics-moral principles; generally recognized rules of conduct./Euclid-important mathematician of the Hellenistic Age who wrote Elements, a textbook on plane geometry./Euripides-Famous Greek playwright who showed greater interest in real-life situations then with gods./Hellenistic Era-the age of Alexander the Great; period when the Greek language and ideas were carried to the non-Greek world./Hellespont-strait between the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea./helot-captive people who were forced to work for their conquerors./Ionia-territory located along the western shore of Asia Minor where many Greeks settled during the Dark Age./Macedonia-powerful kingdom north of Greek city-states that emerged by the end of the fifth century B.C../Minoan-rich culture on Crete 2700-1450 B.C.; far-ranging sea empire with palace complex at Knossos; influenced the peoples of the Great mainland./Mycenaean-Indo-Europeans on mainland Greece who dominated most of Greece and invaded Crete, helping to destroy the Minoan civilization; flourished between 1600 B.C. And 1100 B.C../oligarchy-"the rule of the few," a form of government in which a small group of people exercises controls./Olympus-highest mountain in Greece that was believe by the Greeks to be the home to the 12 chief Greek gods and goddesses./oracle-a sacred shrine where a god or goddess was said to reveal the future through a priest or priestess./ostracism-the process for temporarily banning ambitious politicians from the city by popular vote./Pergamum-one of four Hellenistic kingdoms that emerged after Alexander the Great died./Pericles-Athenian ruler from 461-429 B.C., who expanded Greece's borders and expanded the involvement of Athenians in their democracy./phalanx-a wall of shields created by foot soldiers marching close together in a rectangular formation./Philip II-turned Macedonia into the chief power of the Greek world./philosophy-an organized system of thought, the Greek word for "love of wisdom./Plato-One of the greatest philosophers of Western civilization, he searched for the ideal state of society./polis-the early Greek city-state, consisting of a city or town and its surrounding territory./Pythagoras-a Greek philosopher that taught that the essence of the universe could be found in music and numbers./Socrates-a Greek sculptor who was an influential philosopher who was eventually sentenced to death for questioning authority and corrupting youth. He was killed in 399 B.C. By drinking hemlock./Socratic method-the method of teaching used by the Greek philosopher Socrate which it employs a question-and-answer format to lead pupils to see things for themselves by using their own reason

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