Causes and Alliances of World War 1

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First World War 1914-1918

Reasons why it arose:

  • Political tensions (colonization).
  • Alliances.
  • Industrial Revolution.


Germany is a new empire and they start to get a lot of power so Great Britain and France they were allies (Entente cordiale 1904)j8MeMmL4yggWaWIcN_neUgCVvcxMDzFDP1yIY8RG

  • Germany + Italy + Austria + Hungary.
  • Great Britain + France.

Great Britain and France they were allied (E.C. 1904) because Germany was taking away their power.

Russia joined Great Britain and France in 1914 and the Triple Entente emerged.

  • Great Britain + France + Russia → Triple Entente 1914

Italy and Austria got along badly.

Italy wanted to invade Austria and Hungary so France tells them to ally with them and that if they won Austria and Hungary they would be for Italy, and Italy they accepted that. So:

  • Great Britain + France + Russia + Italy.

As Italy changes sides, with Germany only Austria and Hungary remain; but the Ottoman Empire joins them. And from that arises the Triple Alliance, central powers (1914).

  • Germany + Austria + Hungary + Ottoman Empire → Triple Alliance, central powers, 1914.

Several countries joined one of the sides:

  • Germany + Austria + Hungary + Ottoman Empire + Bulgaria.
  • Great Britain + France + Russia + Italy + Serbia + USA + JAPAN.

The Great War

  • Global War:
  1. Started in Europe on the 28 July 1914.
  2. Ended of the 11 November 1918.
  • 2 opposing alliances:
  1. Allies (Triple Entente).
  2. Central powers (Triple Alliance).
  • Phases:
  1. Movement phase (1914): Fights in Western and Eastern Europe.
  2. Trench warfare (1915- 1917): Both sides in trenches. Stalemate until 1917.
  3. World phase (1916-1918) Battles:
    1. On land / air / sea.
    2. In Eastern Europe / the Mediterranean / Asia / Africa.

The start of WW1:

  • 28th of June: Serb student, Gavrilo Princip shoots Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife.
  • 23th of July: Austria-Hungary asks for compensation to Serbia.
  • 28th of July: Austria-Hungary declares the war.
  • 29th of July: Russian mobilization in favor to Serbia.
  • 1st August: Germany declares war on Russia.
  • 2nd August: France declares war on Germany.
  • 3rd August: Germany declares war on France.
  • 4th August: German attacks neutral Belgium. Great Britain declares war on Germany.
  • 6th August: Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia.
  • 7th of August: Lord Kitchener calls for 100.000 men to join the British Army to defend Belgium.
  • 13th August: Great Britain and France declare war on Austria-Hungary.

Consequences of the WW1:



  • Armistice: Agreement made by opposing sides in a war to stop fighting for a certain time; a truce.
  • Allied powers: People, groups or nations that have joined in an association for mutual benefit. (Britain, France, Russia, Italy and the United States)
  • Balkans: Also called Balkan Peninsula, easternmost of Europe’s three great southern peninsulas.
  • Central powers: A group of nations fighting against the Allied Powers (Austria-Hungary, Germany, Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire=central powers)
  • Conscript: enlist obligatory someone to the armed services.
  • Kaiser: German emperor.
  • No man’s land: Disputed ground between the front lines or trenches of two opposing armies.
  • Reparations: The compensation for war damage paid by defeated state.
  • Trench warfare: A type of combat in which opposing troops fight from trenches facing each other.
  • Triple entente: Is the alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia (1907)
  • Militarism: Build-up of armed forces to prepare for war
  • Imperialism: Belief of a country in building up an empire and controlling less powerful countries.
  • Nationalist: Pride in a country, with people wanting to govern themselves or defend themselves.

Some facts:

The blame for the war: Germany.

Germany paid: £6.600.000.000

German military: Reduced to 100.000 men. Germany navy reduced to 36 ships. No conscription allowed. No tanks, no submarines or aircraft to be built. All wartime weapons to be melted down.

Colonies: France and Great Britain split the colonies and territories captured from Germany and Turkey.

It was the first time that:


Zeppelin-air, bombs

Air attacks- German, first

U-Boat- submarines, Germany

Gas attacks- gas masks, gas

Tank- mobility, trench

Steel helmet- cloth, head

Uniforms- no visible, clothes

Camouflage- France

Recruitment- conscript, ww1

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