Aircraft systems

Classified in Computers

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HARDWARE is the physical part of the computer MOTHERBOARD: On it are inserted other components such as the microprocessor,
communication ports with peripheral devices, video, audio and network devices, etc.
1. Chip and battery for BloS: It's an integrated circuit (chip) that stores the booting
program of the computer. It is identified because BIOS is printed on it.
2. Microprocessor: it's plugged in a socket and a fan helps improving heat dispersal
3. Connectors (slots) for RAM modules.
4. Connector ATX: to join the motherboard with the power supply.
5. IDE connectors (older and wider) and SATA: to connect the motherboard to the
storage units (such as the hard disk, DVD, DVD recorder, etc)
6. Internal connectors PCI expansion slots and AGP: to interconnect graphics cards,
sound cards, the network card, etc.
7. External peripheral connectors (also known as ports): are used to connect
input/output peripherals to the motherboard:
a) RJ-45 network connector: to enable internet connection.
b) VGA graphics connector: for the monitor, the projector.
c) Connectors DVI-VGA graphics and HDMI.
d) Parallel port: for the printer, scanner, etc; in disuse. (USB is used).
e) ATX and Molex connector and Molex-SATA connectors, for power supply.
f) USB connector for various uses( it allows interconnection practically with any device): pen drives, mouse, etc. It can be USB
2.0 (is standard) or USB 3.0 (at a speed ten times higher). There is also the mini-
USB (for MP3, cameras.) and micro-USB (for smartphones).

MICROPROCESSOR: it's mounted on a socket on the motherboard. It normally has a fan and
heat sink above it to cool it down, because if its temperature rises too high it can block the
computer It's responsible for processing data and controlling other devices. It is characterised by its
working frequency, measured in Hz which determines its operating speed. A modern computer
is around 5GHz (5 billion logic operations per second)
MEMORIES: There are 3 types:
RAM Memory: Enables reading and writing, but is volatile, i.E. (in other words), the
information store in it is lost when you turn off the computer or when the power supply is turned
off. It is inserted into modules on the motherboard.
ROM memory: is read-only memory. It is not clear when you turn off the computer, which
makes it ideal for storing computer boot routines (stored in the BIOS)

Cache memory: it is faster and lower capacity than RAM. It acts as a bridge between the
microprocessor and RAM, and contains data widely used in basic logical operations (usually
within the microprocessor chip itself)
STORAGE UNITS (or storage devices): Can be:
1. Internal storage drives: are hard drives, which can be
a) Magnetic hard drives: to read have a head that is moving.
b) Solid state hard drives: store information in memory microchips and have no
moving parts, so they are faster and consume less, but have limited life to a certain
number of operations.
2. External storage drives: CDs, DVDs, Blu-Ray disks, USB flash drives, micro SD cards...

Primary partitions: may be several, up to 4, for example if you have more than one operating
svstem on the computer, in this case, each primary partition Would have its own file system
(NTFS for Windows, Linux Ext3, etc). The operating system can detect and assign a unit.
Extended or secondary partitions: Used to contain multiple logical units inside. It serves to
break the limitation that has only 4 primary. There can be only one extended partition on a hard
drive .Logical partitions: occupy a portion within the extended partition or all of it, which has been
formatted with a file system. At most there may be 64 logical partitions in an extended one. (For
Linux is different, it has a maximum of 15, included the 4 primary)

SOFTWARE It is the logical part in a computer, that makes possible its operation. It
includes both, the operating system and the programs and applications we use.
When the computer is turned on, the first software that works is the BIOS (contains the boot
program, the memory check and checks communication between the motherboard and
peripherals). When the BIOS has finished its task, it hands control to the next level: the
Operating System.
OPERATING SYSTEMS: They allow communication between the user and the computer, also
they control the operation of hardware and computer programs.
Other functions include enabling users to share data and devices (such as a printer).
The most commonly used Windows operating systems in its different versions: Windows 8, 10,
Vista, XP...), Linux (Ubuntu) and Mac 0S .There are operating systems for mobile devices (phones, tablets..) as Android, ioS...

PROGRAMS: These are lists of instructions that a computer can interpret and execute such
programs stored in the BIODs.
APPLICATIONS: These are programs to facilitate a particular type of work, such as a word
processor, a spreadsheet, a database, a generator of presentations.
There are specific applications for mobile devices that take up little space, are easy to download
online stores (like Google Play or App Store). They should be specific to these devices because
they must have lower power consumption, smaller screen, touch interaction, etc.
NETWORKS lt is a set of computers and devices interconnected (connected to each other) with the purpose
of sharing information and resources (hard drives, printers, internet connection..)
In all networks (or communication systems) you will find an information transmitter (that
encodes information) and a receiver (that decodes the information). The information travels in a
channel or communication line.

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