Aircraft systems

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ATP: What is ATP?Molecular Level: ATP is composed of 1 adenosine molecule (adenine + ribose) and 3 molecules of phosphate attached through high energy bonds.

  • When energy is required, a phosphate group is cleaved off releasing free energy.


  • As a person goes about the daily schedules, the body is in constant high demand of ATP.

How does this body keep up with these demands?

  • There are two methods the body uses to make new ATP, Anaerobic (without oxygen) and Aerobic (with oxygen).

  • The system that is chosen for ATP production depends on the duration of the activity being performed.

Two Energy Systems: ATP Production

  • Aerobic System takes place inside Mitochondria (powerhouse).The Aerobic Process (uses O2) involves many enzymes and several complex pathways which eventually lead to the breakdown of Glucose.

  • This system is utilized for activities that are longer than 90 seconds in duration AKA Endurance Events.

  • Fats and Proteins can also enter the cycle and be used as a fuel source at this stage. The Anaerobic System (without O2) occurs relatively quickly in the Muscle Fibre.

  • This system utilizes available enzymes for powerful but relatively short lived,high intensity physical actions.

  • These two systems co-exist, interact and overlap in various combinations to provide adequate amounts of ATP for the needs of the body’s activities.

Aerobic Cellular Respiration: Brief Overview

  • There are a variety of ways in which the body can make energy in the form of ATP. Aerobic Cellular Respiration is one way Plants & Animals make ATP. Oxygen + Glucose → carbon dioxide + water + Energy- Aerobic Cellular Respiration is a process that involves two steps: Glycolysis = takes place in the Cytosol. Oxidative Respiration = takes place in the mitochondria.There are a variety of ways in which they can make energy in the form of ATP.

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