LANDSCAPE: - LIVESTOCK FARMING: the size, form, boundaries of the land and the way its used, shape the
agrarian farming. - FORESTRY: The species of wood defines the landscape.
COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE: The agricultural revolution began in Europe and North America in the
18th century and initiated a transition from subsistence farming to commercial agriculture.
TRADITIONAL AGRICULTURE: It's subsistence agriculture, which uses plots. Families farm the land to
obtain food consumption. - Polyculture - Manual labour - Physical factors
- Shifting cultivation: It practised in Africa, South America and West Asia. The crops are cereals
and tubers. Trees are cut down, burned in the forest and the ash is used to fertilise the soil.
- Sedentary cultivation: It’s practised in the Savanna using a system of rotation.
- Irrigated cultivation: It’s practised in east Asia and India, where monsoon rains cause flooding.
Rice is cultivated in flooded land.
PLANTATION: are agricultural estates, located in less developed countries. The plantations were
established by the European Colony in the 16th-19th centuries. Plantations produce coffee, tea and
rubber. Plantations are controlled by multinational companies or local producers. It requires land,
investments, a transport network, cheap labour and modern machinery.
BENEFITS FOR MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES: Production costs low because workers are paid low
BENEFITS FOR LOCAL COMPANIES: Jobs are created, which stimulates local economies. Transport and
marketing infrastructures improved. It uses farming techniques and an efficient production process.
DISADVANTAGE FOR LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES:
- Plantation crops are exported and the profits go to foreign companies, while workers have a low
standard of living.
- Companies over-explode the land, which causes environmental problems.
LIVESTOCK FARMING: Consists of raising animals for food or other propurses. Cattle, sheep and pigs are
the most common. Farms can use stockbreeding or livestock farming.
EXTENSIVE LIVESTOCK FARMING: (it’s practised in developed and less developed countries.)
- Large farms, where animals graze in pastures./It requires little investment in labour or animal feed./Livestock includes
sheeps and cattle.
In developed countries, products are sold and in less developed countries it used for consumption.
INTENSIVE LIVESTOCK FARMING: (it’s practised in developed countries.)
- Farms specialise in a single animal species./- It requires investments in technology and animal feed./ Animals are raised in stables where diet, health are controlled./ Livestock include cattle, pigs and poultry. Production is used to sell it at markets.
This type of livestock farming has increased food production. But it also damages the
environment and pollutes.
FISHING: it’s the catching of fish and other animals in the sea, rivers or lakes.85% of catches are for human consumption.
- Coastal fishing: takes places on the coast using small boats. The catches are for home
consumption and the local markets.
- Inshore fishing: takes place on the coast using medium size boats. The equipment depends on
the type of fish. The boats use refrigerated components to preserve the fish.
- Offshore fishing: is practised out of sea. It uses ships equipped with modern instruments. Ships
have installations where fishes are cleaned, cut up and frozen. They are factory ships, and they
can be at sea for weeks.
FISHING GROUNDS: are areas in which fish concentrate in the continental shelves. Plankton is the food
for fishes. There’re restrictions, which are controlled by international legislation allowing countries to catch
fishes, 370 km from land. There is overfishing which leads species to disappear. Governments
adopted measures for sustainable fishing. They ban fishing techniques and limit the number of catches.
Countries practise aquaculture, which is the breeding of fish in controlled environments. Aquaculture increases the supply of fish and prevents species from
OCEANIC CLIMATE: it’s found on the Cantabrian coast, Galicia and the Pyrenees.
- Settlement is dispersed and small enclosed holdings.
- The environment is not favourable to agriculture.
- There are meadows and forestry, which are used for livestock farming.
WARM MEDITERRANEAN CLIMATE: it’s found in the Mediterranean coast, Guadalquivir valley and
- Settlements are nucleated. There are large and small, open or closed holdings.
- Rainfed cultivation is practised in the Guadalquivir valley, where olive trees and almond trees are
- Irrigated cultivation: it cultivates fruit and vegetables.
MEDITERRANEAN CLIMATE: it occupies inland of Spain.
- Settlements are nucleated. Small and large open holdings.
- Cereals, vegetables, fruit trees and forage are grown in areas near rivers.
- In flat areas, it cultivates cereals, combined with sheep farming.
- In the areas between the mountain ranges and the plains, it cultivates grapes for wine, olive trees
and almond trees. Sheep are also farmed for their meat.
CANARY ISLANDS: agriculture is influenced by mountain relief, volcanic soil and the warm climate.
- Settlement is nucleated.
- On the coasts, export products such as potatoes, bananas and tomatoes are cultivated. There
are plantations of mango, avocado and pineapple and cultivation of flowers, cucumbers and
- Traditional agriculture is practised with goats.
MOUNTAIN CLIMATE: it occupies the highest altitudes.
- There is livestock farming (cattle and sheep) for meat, and there are many pastures for grazing.
Forestry is an important economic activity.
- The relief and climate do not favour cultivation.