The 18th Century: Enlightenment, Revolutions, and Congress of Vienna

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1. Enlightenment:

  • In what century and in what country did it begin?

During the 18th century, in France

  • State three characteristics of the Enlightenment

Confidence in reason = believing that is the only way to understand the world and achieve progress and happiness

Faith in human progress = achieved through the advances made in science, which should lead all people to happiness

  • Indicate one important philosopher and describe his thinking.

Voltaire: 'Let us read, and let’s us dance; these two amusements never do any harm to the world'

2. The American Revolution

  • Indicate two causes why they wanted to be independent

1) Discontent of the colonies who lacked representation in British parliament

2) The da park = required to pay a tax on commercial and legal documents

  • Who was the leader of the American army? What countries helped them to gain their independence?

George Washington, France, and Spain

  • What date did they declare independence? On what document?

4 July 1776

3. French Revolution:

  • Draw the timeline of the French Revolution.

1) January 24: LOUS SXVI summons the estates general

2) August 4: abolition of feudal (noble clerical) rights

3) August 26: declarations of the rights of man

4) October 5-6: 'kidnapped' back to Paris

5) May 19: National Assembly abolishes the nobility

  • What is the main difference between the Girondins and the Jacobins

Initially, the Jacobins were advocates of a democratic form of government and the Girondists supported the constitutional monarchy, but later on, a shift in the political view of the Girondists can be seen from constitutional monarchy to a democratic government.

6. Congress of Vienna:

  • What important decision did they take about the political regime after deposing Napoleon:

It first became a monarchy. Problems that plagued revolutionary France. It lurched inconsistently from the policy to another

  • What is the Holy Alliance?

Was to guard the post-war of Europe and make every effort to prevent the revolutionary influence

  • Indicate two characteristics of liberalism:

Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but they generally support individual rights (including civil rights and human rights)

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