Do you swear to God and the Holy Gospels to defend the Constitution of the Spanish Monarchy sanctioned by these general and extraordinary Cortes, be loyal to the King

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General features of constitution of buildings of liberal state

Economy: Backward economy in comparation with the rest of Western Europe. The industrialization was weak and unequal, like in Pais Vasco, Cataluña and big cities. It was mainly rural based on economy. It means basically for self-consumption and with feudalism features: mortmain belongs to nobility and Church. Moreover, there were some attempts of expropiation (some politicians)

Society: the society was unequal due to the bad distribution of properties and wealth. There was a limited bourgeoisie to implement liberal reforms and developed the industrialization. There were also a church ideologic control over a large part of the population (rural and unliterate). The polarization of he society did that the conflict will rise up: rich/poor urban/rural conservative/progressive.

Policy: there was a conflict in 1833, that is to say at the beginning of the century, between Absolutism vs Liberalism ( moderate vs progressive). There was a weak electoral system and normally only votes less than 5% of the population. Moreover, the election results were systematically manipulated in favor of the party in power (electoral fraud). Members of the nobility, military and clergy formed political cliques and used their influence for personal gain (camarillismo). Families with political and economic power could decide on caciquismo, a way to manipulate te results of election results that was named as governors or social leaders that used different ways, such as buying votes, arbitrary restrictions or the suffrage. There was an intervention of the army: General become political leaders (for example: General Narvaez) and they don’t let a pacific transition. They do Pronunciamientos.

Fernando VII

Six years of absolutism (1814-20): After reclaimingthe throne with the support of absolutists (Manifiesto de los persas 1814), Fernando VII abolish the constitution of 1812 and the liberal reforms proposed by the cortes de cadiz. So, Spain returned to absolutism. Cortes de cadiz was a meeting in 1810 of the Juntas to organize the war against France and draft the constitution (1812) with liberal principles. The constitution established national sovereignty, separation of powers, universal male suffrage and recognized broad individual freedom.

The liberal triennium ( 1820-23): In 1820 a pronunciamento led by Colonel Rafael del Riego in Cabezas de San Juan was successful and the king was forced to reinstate the constitution of 182. The National Militia was created to defend the constitution and liberalism. In 1823, Fernando VII called the Holy Alliance to restored absolutism.

The Ominous decade (1823-33): Ferdinand VII promulgates the Pragmatic Sanction as a result, the Salic Law was abolished and women could rule, so thanks to that, her daughter Isabella could be queen. This led to people to divide into two parts, one part agreed with this decision, the liberals, and the other oats disagreed, so they were absolutists and supported Infante Carlos. After all this, the fiscal reform started to get support from the liberals.

Spanish colonies independence (causes)

-Spread of liberal and nationalist ideas of the French and Liberal Revolutions.

-Lack of power (no king). Some American Juntas declare the independence.

-Example of the independence of the USA.

-Local bourgeoisie (criollos) were upset with their taxes and political marginalization.

-Military help of UK and USA.

-Some liberal military leaders were Bolivar, Antonio Jose del Sucre and San Martin.

Spanish colonies independence (consequences)

-Creation of new liberal states in Latin-American (almost all republicans)

-Lost of commerce incomes and taxes revenues for Spain: economic crisis.

-Lost of international political power.

Isabella II

1833-40: The regency of Mª Cristina: - Mutiny of La Granja (porgressive). -Confiscation and disentorment ordered by Mendizabal. -New progressive Constitution 1837 the abolish the AR.

1840-43: The regency of Espartero: -Very authoritarian (he acted like a dictater). -Free take art: that generates a lot of opposition.

1843-54: The moderate Isabella is queen decade: -The leader was Narváez(General). -Nrew Constitution 1845 (Moderate). -Centralisation (taxes, education, etc). -Concordat with the Church ( the Holy See). -Guardia Civil.

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