If the surface temperature is 15°c , then the temperature at 10000 ft in a current of ascending unsaturated air is:

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·Sources of complexity//Variability- graphical Presentation and statistics//Integrative- interactions among numerous variables//Contingency- Sequence of events matters//These sources are interconnected

·Ecology- study of where things live, “oikos” à Physiological ecology- organismal Level //Population ecology- species level // Community ecology- study of the Distribution, abundance, and interactions of co-existing populations

·Evolution- study of change in genetic composition of a Population during successive generations; can result in the appearance of new Species à Major Mechanism is natural selection

·Phylogeny- study of the historical relationships among Species


oTaxonomy- Classification, identification, and naming of organisms

oPhylogenetic- Study of evolutionary relatedness among groups of species

oSpecies Richness- counting number of species

oGenetic Diversity- within a species

·Tropics- experience the greatest input in solar Radiation

oNear the Equator, solar radiation travels a short distance through the atmosphere and Strikes a small surface area; the sun’s energy is spread out over a small area

·Global air circulation patterns

o6 total Major convection cycles, 3 on each side

oAt the Equator, there is a lot of solar energy coming in

§Latitudes are north to south

oAs air is Warmed It gets less dense and rises

oSpin of the Earth causes friction on some air masses- Coriolis Effect

oAs air rises It gets cooler and forms condensation

oAir moves From high to low pressure areas

oThe earth’s Rotation deflects the air movement to create global wind patterns

§Always name wind from where it came from (example: Westerlies came from the west)

oWhen we cut Down forests, we change the weather

·Ocean current

oRedistributes Heat, influences the distribution of nutrients

oGyre- spin Like current

§Causes garbage patches in the ocean

oMovement From the equator brings hot water which then cools at higher latitudes

oWind going Parallel to the coast will cause surface current to flow away from the coast Which then causes water from higher depths to rise

oFisheries Use the tracking of these to help their business

·Coastal habitats

oKelp forests And mangroves are found around the world

oMangroves Are better about trapping nutrients


oSummer Solstice- midday sunlight strikes Earth more directly in the Northern Hemisphere—the Sun is higher in the sky and casts smaller shadows

oWinter Solstice is the opposite

oSeasonality Is determined by Earth’s tilted axis of rotation and its annual passage around The sun

oEquinoxes- Day length in the tropics is exactly 12 hours

·Factors that affect local environment

oLarge bodies Of water (reduces temperature swings) – high specific heat of water

oTopography- Hills and slopes, mountains and rain shadow

§Aspect- direction slope is facing and how it affects Moisture and temperature

§Angle of slope- affects drainage


oBedrock- Type determines type and composition of soil which determines plant species in An area

·Large bodies of water

oWarm air Over the land rise and moves over water, cool air sinks over water and is blown Back over land

§At night, the cycle reverses

§At dawn and dusk is when the shift happens

oTemperature Ranges in southern hemisphere are smaller than those of northern hemisphere

§More water in southern hemisphere, which has a more Stable temperature


oBasin is a Large flat area

oRain shadow- Coastal water is carried in and hits the mountains on the windward side


§North facing slope- less solar radiation, cooler, less Evapotranspiration

§South facing slope- more solar radiation, warmer, Dryer, greater evapotranspiration

·Only for northern hemisphere


§Lower montane zone- highest temperature, lowest Precipitation

§Montane zone

§Subalpine zone

§Alpine zone

§For every 1km increase in elevation, you decrease in Temperature of 3.6 degrees Fahrenheit, same as going 700 miles north

oBedrock- Affects habitat that is grown

§Endemic plants- found only in one specific region

·Variations in the physical environment underlie the Diversity of biological systems

·The physical environment ultimately determines where Organisms live (distribution).

·The physical (abiotic) environment varies widely over The earth’s surface

oSpatial and Temporal variation

oDiverse, Mosaic of habitats

·Distribution of Major Terrestrial Biomes

oLargely Determined by temperature and mean participation

·Tropical Rainforests

oHot, little Variation in temperature throughout the year

oAverage Precipitation is on average 200 cm per year

§Usually dry and wet season, but not a huge change Between them

oUsually Located near the equator

oInfertile Soil but high species richness

§Only top surface of soil has nutrients in it

§Greater than 50% of the world’s terrestrial species Can be found in tropical rainforests

§Most nutrients are in the living biomass

§Intense competition for light, water, nutrients

§In one hectare, there will be between 40 and 300 Species of trees

§1500 species of butterflies per square mile

§During this lecture, we will lose 3 species from the Tropics

·Savannas and Tropical seasonal forests

oFound a bit North and south of the tropics

oA bit of a Seasonality in temperature

oVery Distinct wet and dry seasons

oLess rain on Average than the tropics

oMore fertile But can still be nutrient-poor

§Bedrock is so far away

oDominant Vegetation- mix of grass and forbs

§Forbs- all non-woody plants besides grass

§Increase in grass, decrease in trees as you move Further away from the equator

oHome of Large herbivores- giraffes, kangaroos

oOccasional Fires are used for maintenance- adapted for this and seasonal drought

·Temperate Woodlands and Scrublands

oWhen it is Hot, its dry

oFound in Mediterranean coast, South Africa, California

oLots of Endemics in this reason

oMild, wet Winter

oAdaptation To fire and seasonal drought


oVery low Precipitation

oSeasonal Variation in temperature can depend on the location of where they’re located

o25-degree N And S latitude

oHigh sand Content in soil, infertile, low water-holding capacity

oPlant-life Is sparse and low to the ground

§Succulents- cacti

oMight be a Tiny bit of a rainy season- causes a flush of wildflowers

·Temperate Grassland

oDominated by Grasses

oLocated Farther north and south of the equator

oLarge Temperature range- hot summers and cold winters

oSoil is deep And fertile

oFarms are Usually placed here

·Temperate Deciduous Forests

oAverage Temperature is a little bit lower

oAverage Precipitation is a bit higher

oWater is Frozen in some portions of the year

oLots of Plants lose their years

oSoil is Relatively rich

oDominant Vegetation is trees- oaks, maples, birches

oMuch of the Area is being logged

·Boreal Forests- taiga, northern coniferous

oHigher in Latitude

oAverage Precipitation is quite low

oTemperature Varies seasonally

oVery long Summer days, long winter nights

oLow Diversity in tree species

oLargest Terrestrial biome

oLittle Understory vegetation


oNorthern Limits of plant growth

oOpen, boggy Community

oLittle rain

oTemperature Range is mostly below freezing

oSoil is Permafrost- ground is frozen within a meter of the surface (infertile)

oPerennial Shrubs, flowers, mosses, lichens

·Aquatic biomes- largest part of the biosphere

oPelagic Zone- open water

oBenthic Zone- layer at the bottom of the ocean or a lake

oMany aquatic Biomes are physically and chemically stratified

§Layering has to do with where you are in regards to The surface

§Photic zone- close to top of water, light reaches

§Layering with respect to pressure and nutrients


§Oligotrophic- clear, lacks some nutrients

§Eutrophic- too much of one nutrient, forms Deoxygenated zone

oWetlands- Inundated by waters at least some of the time - Among the most productive Biomes

oEstuaries- Transition Are between river and sea

oCoral Reefs

§Low nutrients in water column but are high in biodiversity

§Shallow and deep sea

oIntertidal Zones-Periodically submerged and exposed//Changes in physical conditions

oOcean Pelagic zone- Covers approximately 70% of world’s surfaces

oMarine Benthic Zone-Very high pressures


oThe number Of species- about 1.9 million known, named species living today

§Undiscovered species numbers vary greatly

oGenetic Variation within a population

oGenetic Variation across populations

oEcosystem Diversity

·Biodiversity: Known and Estimated

oMammals: 5,487 known, 5,500 estimated

oBirds: 9,990 Known, 10,000 estimated

oInsects: 1 Million known, 5 million estimated

oVascular Plants: 281,621 known, 368,050 estimated

oBacteria and Archaea: 7,643 known, 1 million estimated

oWe are Currently in the age of discovery with new technology and a great motivation to Make sure species don’t go extinct without science knowing

oIn 2016, 17,000 species were discovered

§Half were insects

o25% of all Known amphibians have been discovered in the last 10 years

o86% of Terrestrial and 91% of marine species have yet to be discovered

oMekong River Watershed

§Between 1997-2007, over 1,000 new species have been Discovered and described

§About 2 species a week

§519 plants, 279 fish, 88 frogs, 88 spiders, 46 Lizards, 22 snakes, 15 mammals

·Conservation Diplomacy

oIn some Regions of the world, conflict and politics make it difficult to study Biodiversity

o80% of armed Clashes in the last 50 years have been in areas of high biodiversity

oNew species Discoveries likely to happen in Cuba

oWilderness Buffers between countries can lead to further dialogue and peace

§Peru/Ecuador border

·Values of Biodiversity

oAesthetic Value

oEcosystem integrity

oEconomic Value- ecosystem services to people is worth trillions of dollars worldwide

·Spatial Scales of Disturbances

oDisturbance- A relatively discrete event in time that removes organisms or otherwise Disrupts the community by influencing the availability of space or food Resources, or by changing the physical environment

oSmall Disturbances (less than 1000 hectares)

§Secondary successions

oMedium Disturbances (1000 hectares to millions of hectares)

§Primary succession

§Dynamic equilibrium

oLarge Disturbances (continents to global)

§Mass extinctions


·Small Disturbances

oSecondary Succession- starts with a disturbance that removes most of the vegetation

oDiffers from Primary succession because it does not start from the bare ground

oForest Clearing through logging

oThe process By which the biological community of a given site changes over time (usually Following a disturbance)

oSpecies Composition changes over time

§Pioneer/early-successional species (better dispersal)

§These species are eventually replaced by Late-successional species (more competitive)

§If no disturbance, climax species come to dominate

oEach Organism not only responds to the environment but also modifies it and, in Doing so, becomes part of the broader environment itself

oAt a larger Spatial scale, all species can coexist, despite even a high frequency or Severity of disturbances.

§Spatial heterogeneity

§A mosaic of patches recovering from different levels Of disturbance that occurred at different times in the past

§Patches of differing sizes and ages provide a wide Variety of environmental conditions

§Each patch is occupied by species adapted to its niche

oShifting Mosaic- add a temporal component to the spatial model above

·Primary Succession

oHarsh Abiotic conditions, initial species develop soil

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