1/4 The war of The Spanish Succession
The War of spnaish succession
The Habsburg King Carlos II died without children
in 1700, when there were two rival candidates to the
Spanish throne. The candidate of the Bourbon
dynasty, Philippe, Duke of Anjou, was Louis
XIV's grandson, and he was supported by France.
Archduke Charles was the Habsburg candidate,
and he was supported by the Holy Roman Empire.
Carlos II named Philippe of Anjou as his successor,
but Archduke Charles did not accept this, and the
War of the Spanish Succession began in 1701.
This war was an international conflict. France and
Spain opposed an alliance of European powers (the
Holy Roman Empire, the Dutch Republic and Britain),
who were concerned about possible Bourbon
supremacy. However, it was also a Civil War: much of
Castile supported Philippe of Anjou, while the Crown
of Arag6n supported Archduke Charles.
The war ended with a series of treaties in 1713 and
1714. The Treaty of Utrecht (1713) recognised the
Bourbon candidate Philippe, who became Felipe V,
King of Spain. In exchange, Austria received Spanish
territory in Flanders and Italy. Britain received
Gibraltar and Menorca, and was also granted some
privileges in its trade with America. Within Spain,
opposition to Felipe V ended when Barcelona was
taken in 1714.
Early Bourbon rule
Felipe V centralised administration in
Spain, following the French model. Since the Crow:
of Aragon had opposed him in the war. He abolished the
charters and institutions of the Crown of Aragon.
Felipe V imposed Castilian institutions.
created a new figure instead: this was
the minister. Felipe's
successor, Fernando VI, continued
these reforms. The
Catastro of Ensenada was a large scale
census and geographical investigation.
In foreign policy, Felipe tried to recover the
territories lost at Utrecht. He made alliances with
the French Bourbons through 'Family Pacts', and
participated in several wars. Spain recovered Napoles