4***The workers of the guilds had three gategories
- The master was the owner of the shop, often inherited from hid father. With other masters he controlled the guild and fixed the tests journeymen had to overcome to reach the master´s category.
- Officers were skilled craftsmen working in the shop, in exchange for a wage.
- Apprentices were young people who learned their trade for several years, without being paid, in exchange for maintenance
5The royal authority is reinforced.
From the 12C the improving economy allowed the kings to collect more taxes, so they started to pay professional armies to defend their territories or control the nobles. They strengthened their government with the help of people that were well up on laws, wich partly recovered Roman laws. During middle ages, almost nobody except the crergy and some nobles could reas and write. The king needed prepared counselors and officials and wealthy bourgeois people also needed to study for their business, so they began to emerge in the cities schools dependent of the church or municipaities, which gradually gained independence and became the firsts universities.
Latin was used to study grammar, rhetoric,, dialectic (the trivium) and arithmetic, geometry, music and astronomy (the quadrivium) but soon also law medicine and arts
Burgeois people wanted security on roads, ports and markets, and greater freedom to exercise their businesses out of the feudallord. So they supported the monarchy. King got new taxes instead he offered tem protection and privileges to govern themselves, which were contained in their own city laws (charters)
As cities became important, the king called to his council meeting to representatives of the cities. Thus were born the medieval courts, as the meeting of the three states.