The bourgeois revolutions enabled the bourgeoisie to gain political power and a social status which had only been available to the nobility under the Ancien Régime.These took place in the late 18th and early 19th.
A.R (1775-1783).In the American War of Independence G.B fought its 13 colonies located on the Atlantic coast of North America.Causes: Ideological fact. Liberty and equality the basis for the Independence.
Political fact. 7 Years Wars.G.B won.Increased taxes-Pay war debts.
Economic and social fact. Wealty colonial bourgeoisie.Freedom of trade.
Consequences: War of Independence led by G.Washington (1775).New army.
1st Stage: G.B had succes.Declaration of Independence 4 July 1776.
2nd Stage: Birth of United States in the 1783 Treaty of Versailles.United States constitution 1787.Federal Republic.U.S symbol for other nations.
Consequence F.R and N.E was the crisis and fall of the Ancien Régime.
-Political changes: constitutional monarchy and republic, constitutions based popular sovereignty, political parties, declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen.-Economic changes: citizens had to pay tax, free trade and respect for private property.-Social changes: Everyone was now equeal before the law, bourgeoisie could participate in politics.
Napoleon EMPIRE: In 1804 Napoleon declared himself.Emperor of Fran. Napoleon´s political achievements were: -DOMESTIC POLICY: consolidated changes made during the revolution.He established Civil Code.Private property was protected. -FOREIGN POLICY: made France an empire as a result of his victories over Austria,Russia,Prussia. He never defeated G.B, despite the continental Blockhade he sed up.He spread revolutionary principles of libert. And equal. He was defeated at Battle of Waterloo in 1815.He was exiled to island of St.Helena where died 1821.
NATIONAL ASSEMBLY: the 3rd estate asked new voting system where representative vote individually.King refused, 3rd state as true representative of the nation was forming National Assembly.Final. King agreed.CONSTITUTIONAL. MONARCH (1789-1792)led by:moderate bourg.-Constituent assembly: Constitution (limited monarchy, separation powers, limited suffrage) Other measur. (abolishment feudal privileges, equality taxes, civil constitu. Of the clergy.-Legislative assembly: (1791) 2 parties: -Girondins (moder. Wealth. Bourg.-Supported constitutional monarchy -Dominated LA -Jacobins (radical polite bourg.)-Republic -Universal manhood suffrage.DEMOCRATIC REPUBL. (1792-1794)led by:radical bourg.-National Convention: led by Girondins.-They were elected by universal manhood suffrage.-The king and queen executed and republic was prolaved.-Jacobin Convention: most radical phase.They imposed Terror dictatorship led by Robespierre, supported by sans culottes.Measures intented to:*contribute war against Austria,Prussia,Rus *the constitution *law of Maximum.BOURGEOIS REPUBL. (1795-1804)led by:moderate and conservative bourg.-The directory:New constitution(bourg.Power, limited man suffrage, conservative government)*Directory(5 members):separation powers, higher armes influence.-The consulate:(1799 general Napoleon Bonaparte, consulate new form government, 3 consuls, 1802 Napoleon 1st cónsul for life.*Reform: -End France´s political economic instability.-1804 end French Revolution.-Napoleon absolute power.