GOTHIC: GOTHIC ART was in the middle of the 12thC until 15thC and to some places 16thC. Gothic art was strongly citized in the 15thC. Gothic art was strongly citized by French authors before becoming a recognized form of art, and the wording became fixed. Style of Medieval art that started in France out of the Romanesque style. The word “gothic” for art is synomynous to “barbaric” and was used pejoratively. Art artics then taught it was undefined and too remote. Gothic was known as “Opus Modernum”. The term “gothic” was first coined for architecture. Gothic architecture. GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE: Gothic architecture moved away from the Romanesque heaviness and solidity towards lightness and grace. Compounded Piers: Downward thrust of the pointed arch and vault is transferred to the slender columns or piers. Pier vertical: structural support, a pillar, supporting the end of an arch. Compounded pier/cluster pier: a group or cluster of piers entending the lower stone of the vault. Flying Buttresses: A support that counteracts the outward thrust of an arch of vaul. Arched projections attached to the exterior of the building. They transfer the weight away from the walls and allowing higher structure and more windows since the wall don’t need to support the weight of the building by themselves. (Notre Dame). Stained class window: a support or brace that counteracts the outward thrust of an arch or vault. Arched projections attached to the exterior of the building. They transfer the weight away from the walls and allowing higher structure and more windows since the walls don’t need to support the weight of the building by themselves. GOTHIC SCULPTURE: linked to the architecture, adapted to the architectural elements, round sculptures, façade features sculpted figures of saints and Biblical personages. Interiors: holy figures, people in their daily activities, planting. Gothic sculptures made their sculptures projects outward into space. Figure was clearly identified and easily recognized. More realism, want human figures to look like real people. Gargoyles: Grotesque flying monsters projecting out from the upper portions of the cathedrals. These frightening and intimidating sculptures were used by great Lords and kings who built elaborate fortresses and castles to crush and intimidate the indigenous population. They came in the early 13thC.