Classified in Chemistry

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law of conservation of E

in interactions between a system and its surroundings, energy cannot be created or destroyed.

open system

freely exchanges matter and energy with its surroundings.

closed system

only exchanges energy with its surroundings.

isolated system

no interactions with surroundings.

potential energy

E due to composition/ position of object.

kinetic energy

E of motion.


reflects random motions of the particles. Indicates direction of heat energy flow.


transfer of E between two objects due to temperature difference.

specific heat

The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree celsius.

the system

part of the universe that contains the reaction/ process you wish to study.

the surroundings

everything in the universe other than the system.


Absorbs heat


Releases heat

phase change

represent the heat required to change the state of 1 mol of a substance.

latent heat

occurs when thermal E absorbed or released but no temp change occurs, happens at a phase change.


The heat content of a system at constant pressure

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